Spectrum, and Pathophysiology of Sepsis
Spectrum and Pathophysiology of Sepsis
Keywords:Antibiotics; infections; contamination; sepsis; septic shock; pathophysiology
Infections represents a frequent medical concern in the individuals of all age group. It happened whenpatients’system responses toward any infections which causes a condition called sepsis which further led to the organmalfunctioning. When a dysregulated host reacted toward infection that causes a life-threatening organ dysfunction that can led to the state of critical chronic illness accompanied by catabolism and severe immune dysfunction.It is generally brought about by microbes’ growths, bacterial disease, or infections and at present there is no particular treatment; and lead to 30% mortality rate, causing millions of deaths per year worldwide. It is more common among elder age individuals as compared to young individuals. Recent definitions have been distributed for clinical practices and exploration of sepsis and contributed toward early diagnosis of the disease. Early, and effective antimicrobial treatment is related with endurance from sepsis and increases the survival rate from the disease.
[ ]Deutschman CS, Tracey KJ. Sepsis: current dogma and new perspectives. Immunity. 2014 Apr;40(4):463-75. doi: 10.1016/j.immuni.2014.04.001.
[ ]Singer M, Deutschman CS, Seymour CW, Shankar-Hari M, Annane D, Bauer M, Bellomo R, Bernard GR, Chiche JD, Coopersmith CM, Hotchkiss RS. The third international consensus definitions for sepsis and septic shock (Sepsis-3). Jama. 2016 Feb;315(8):801-10.doi: 10.1001/jama.2016.0287.
[ ]Russell, James A. (2006). Management of Sepsis. New England Journal of Medicine, 2006 Oct; 355(16), 1699–1713.doi:10.1056/nejmra043632
[ ] Zhang Z, Bokhari F, Guo Y, Goyal H. Prolonged length of stay in the emergency department and increased risk of hospital mortality in patients with sepsis requiring ICU admission. Emergency Medicine Journal. 2019 Feb 1;36(2):82-7.doi: 10.1136/emermed-2018-208032
[ ]Jawad I, Lukšić I, Rafnsson SB. Assessing available information on the burden of sepsis: global estimates of incidence, prevalence and mortality. Journal of global health. 2012 Jun;2(1).doi: 10.7189/jogh.02.010404.
[ ]Tariq M, Jafri W, Ansari T, Awan S, Ali F, Shah M, Jamil S, Riaz M, Shafqat S. Medical mortality in Pakistan: experience at a tertiary care hospital. Postgraduate medical journal. 2009 Sep;85(1007):470-4. doi: 10.1136/pgmj.2008.074898
[ ]Mukhtar S, Saleem SG, Ali S, Khatri SA, Yaffee AQ. Standing at the edge of mortality; Five-year audit of an emergency department of a tertiary care hospital in a low resource setup. Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences. 2021 May;37(3):633-638.doi: 10.12669/pjms.37.3.3680
[ ]Faraji‐Goodarzi M. Sepsis after non‐perforated acute appendicitis. Clinical case reports. 2019 Mar;7(3):520-3. doi: 10.1002/ccr3.2030
[ ]Markowiak P, Śliżewska K. Effects of probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics on human health. Nutrients. 2017 Sep;9(9):1021. doi: 10.3390/nu9091021.
[ ]Nojoomi F, Ghasemian A. The relation of phylogroups, serogroups, virulence factors and resistance pattern of Escherichia coli isolated from children with septicemia. New microbes and new infections. 2019 May; 29:100517. doi: 10.1016/j.nmni.2019.100517.
[ ]Thapa S, Sapkota LB. Changing trend of neonatal septicemia and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of isolates in Nepal. International journal of pediatrics. 2019 Feb ;2019.doi: 10.1155/2019/3784529.
[ ] Siddiqui E, Jokhio AA, Raheem A, Waheed S, Hashmatullah S. The Utility of Early Warning Score in Adults Presenting with Sepsis in the Emergency Department of a Low Resource Setting. Cureus. 2020 Jul;12(7).doi: 10.7759/cureus.9030.
[ ]Pannu AK, Saroch A, Singla V, Sharma N, Dutta P, Jain A, Angrup A. Clinical spectrum, etiology and outcome of infectious disease emergencies in adult diabetic patients in northern India. Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews. 2020 Sep;14(5):921-5. doi: 10.1016/j.dsx.2020.06.004.
[ ] Auriemma CL, Zhuo H, Delucchi K, Deiss T, Liu T, Jauregui A, Ke S, Vessel K, Lippi M, Seeley E, Kangelaris KN. Acute respiratory distress syndrome-attributable mortality in critically ill patients with sepsis. Intensive care medicine. 2020 Jun;46(6):1222-1231. doi: 10.1007/s00134-020-06010-9.
[ ]Aggarwal M, Vijan V, Vupputuri A, Nandakumar S, Mathew N. A rare case of fatal Endocarditis and sepsis caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a patient with chronic renal failure. Journal of clinical and diagnostic research: JCDR. 2016 Jul;10(7): OD12-3. doi: 10.7860/JCDR/2016/20220.8175.
[ ]Jentzer JC, van Diepen S, Henry TD, Baran DA, Barsness GW, Holmes Jr DR. Influence of intra‐aortic balloon pump on mortality as a function of cardiogenic shock severity. Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions. 2021 May;1–12.doi: 10.1002/ccd.29800.
[ ]Mohseny AB, van Velze V, Steggerda SJ, Smits-Wintjens VE, Bekker V, Lopriore E. Late-onset sepsis due to urinary tract infection in very preterm neonates is not uncommon. European journal of pediatrics. 2018 Jan;177(1):33-8. doi: 10.1007/s00431-017-3030-9.
[ ]Durrani NU, Rochow N, Alghamdi J, Pelc A, Fusch C, Dutta S. Minimum duration of antibiotic treatment based on blood culture in rule out neonatal sepsis. The Pediatric infectious disease journal. 2019 May;38(5):528-32. doi: 10.1097/INF.0000000000002182.
[ ]Delanghe JR, Speeckaert MM. Translational research and biomarkers in neonatal sepsis. Clinica chimica acta. 2015 Dec;451(Pt A):46-64. doi: 10.1016/j.cca.2015.01.031.
[ ] Melvan JN, Siggins RW, Bagby GJ, Stanford WL, Welsh DA, Nelson S, Zhang P. Suppression of the stem cell antigen-1 response and granulocyte lineage expansion by alcohol during septicemia. Critical care medicine. 2011 Sep;39(9):2121-30. doi: 10.1097/CCM.0b013e31821e89dc.
[ ]Paoli CJ, Reynolds MA, Sinha M, Gitlin M, Crouser E. Epidemiology and costs of sepsis in the United States—an analysis based on timing of diagnosis and severity level. Critical care medicine. 2018 Dec;46(12):1889.doi: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000003342.
[ ] Tzeng IS, Chien KL, Tu YK, Chen JY, Ng CY, Chien CY, Chen JC, Chaou CH, Yiang GT. Segmented regression analysis of emergency departments patient visits from Septicemia in Taiwan. Health policy and technology. 2018 Jun 1;7(2):149-55.doi: 10.1016/j.hlpt.2018.01.010.
[ ]Stassi C, Mondello C, Baldino G, Ventura Spagnolo E. Post-Mortem Investigations for the Diagnosis of Sepsis: A Review of Literature. Diagnostics (Basel). 2020 Oct;10(10):849. doi: 10.3390/diagnostics10100849.
[ ]Tahir F, Ahmed J, Malik F. Post-splenectomy Sepsis: A Review of the Literature. Cureus. 2020 Feb;12(2):e6898. doi: 10.7759/cureus.6898.
[ ] Li Y, Li H, Zhang D. Timing of norepinephrine initiation in patients with septic shock: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Critical Care. 2020 Dec;24(1):1-9.doi: 10.1186/s13054-020-03204-x.
[ ] Armstrong BA, Betzold RD, May AK. Sepsis and septic shock strategies. Surgical Clinics. 2017 Dec;97(6):1339-79.doi: 10.1016/j.suc.2017.07.003.
[ ] Rudd KE, Johnson SC, Agesa KM, Shackelford KA, Tsoi D, Kievlan DR, Colombara DV, Ikuta KS, Kissoon N, Finfer S, Fleischmann-Struzek C. Global, regional, and national sepsis incidence and mortality, 1990–2017: analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study. The Lancet. 2020 Jan;395(10219):200-11.doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(19)32989-7.
[ ]Haydar S, Spanier M, Weems P, Wood S, Strout T. Comparison of QSOFA score and SIRS criteria as screening mechanisms for emergency department sepsis. The American journal of emergency medicine. 2017 Nov;35(11):1730-3.doi: 10.1016/j.ajem.2017.07.001
[ ]Faix JD. Biomarkers of sepsis. Critical reviews in clinical laboratory sciences. 2013 Jan;50(1):23-36. doi: 10.3109/10408363.2013.764490
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2020 MARKHOR (The Journal of Zoology)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
This is an open-access journal and all the published articles / items are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. For comments firstname.lastname@example.org