Antibacterial effect of Moringa oleifera Tea Leaves and Seeds Extracts Prepared in Chloroform against E. coli Isolated from Ostrich Feces

Antibacterial effect of Moringa oleifera Tea Leaves and Seeds Extracts


  • Uzma Rafi Deparmtent of Zoology, Lahore Garrison University, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Masoom Majid Deparmtent of Zoology, Lahore Garrison University, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Roheela Yasmeen Deparmtent of Zoology, Lahore Garrison University, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Syeda Shazia Bokhari Deparmtent of Zoology, Lahore Garrison University, Lahore, Pakistan



Moringa oleifera, Tea leaves, Seed, Extract


Ostrich farming is an important growing industry in Pakistan. Its business and importance is growing day by day. However, prevalence of bacteria is major threat to ostrich industry. Objective: To identify the dominant bacteria in the feces of ostriches. Methods: The ostrich that was kept in captivity at the W.A. Apparel factory provided the fecal samples. The samples were inoculated on EMB for the isolation of E. coli. Antibacterial effect of Moringa oleifera seeds and tea leaves with the use of chloroform as a solvent. The antibacterial activity was tested against E. coli using disc diffusion method. Amoxicillin and erythromycin were used as a control antibiotics. Results: It was noticed that tea extract did not show any antimicrobial activity against E. coli. However, Moringa oleifera seeds were effective against E. coli. Conclusion: It was concluded that Moringa oleifera seeds have the potential to work against E. coli.


Shanawany MM. The importance of light for ostriches. Ostrich Update. 1994; 3:52-4.

Gandini GC and Keffen RH. Sex determination of the south-african ostrich (struthio-camelus). Journal of the South African Veterinary Association. 1985 Dec; 56(4):209-10.

Jarvis MJ, Jarvis C, Keffen RH. Breeding seasons and laying patterns of the southern African ostrich Struthio camelus. Ibis. 1985 Oct; 127(4):442-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1474-919X.1985.tb04840.x

Cooper RG and Horbañczuk JO. Anatomical and physiological characteristics of ostrich (Struthio camelus var. domesticus) meat determine its nutritional importance for man. Animal Science Journal. 2002 Jun; 73(3):167-73. doi: 10.1046/j.1344-3941.2002.00024.x

Anjum FM and Walker CE. Grain, flour and bread‐making properties of eight Pakistani hard white spring wheat cultivars grown at three different locations for 2 years. International Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2000 Aug; 35(4):407-16. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2621.2000.00400.x

Abbas G, Mahmood S, Sajid M, Ali Y. Ostrich Farming: A New Turn in Poultry Industry of Pakistan. Advances in Zoology and Botany. 2017; 5(3):33-8.

Silva N, Igrejas G, Gonçalves A, Poeta P. Commensal gut bacteria: distribution of Enterococcus species and prevalence of Escherichia coli phylogenetic groups in animals and humans in Portugal. Annals of Microbiology. 2012 Jun; 62(2):449-59. doi: 10.1007/s13213-011-0308-4

Foggin CM. Veterinary problems of ostriches. The Topaz introduction to practical ostrich farming. 1992.

Tully TN and Shane SM. Husbandry practices as related to infectious and parasitic diseases of farmed ratites. International Office of Epizootics. 1996 Mar; 15(1):73-89. doi: 10.20506/rst.15.1.916

Kolb J, Kankondi R, Hübschle OJ. Isolation of Chlamydia spp. from ostriches (Struthio camelus). DTW. Deutsche Tierarztliche Wochenschrift. 1993 Nov; 100(11):454-.

Mughal MH, Ali G, Srivastava PS, Iqbal M. Improvement of drumstick (Moringa pterygosperma Gaertn.)–a unique source of food and medicine through tissue culture. Hamdard Med. 1999; 42(1):37-42.

Somali MA, Bajneid MA, Al‐Fhaimani SS. Chemical composition and characteristics ofMoringa peregrina seeds and seeds oil. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society. 1984 Jan; 61(1):85-6. doi: 10.1007/BF02672051

Rebecca HS, Sharon M, Arbainsyah A, Lucienne D. Moringa oleifera: medicinal and socio-economic uses. International Course on Economic Botany. National Herbarium Leiden, Netherlands. 2006 Sep: 2-6.

Stevens GC, Baiyeri KP, Akinnnagbe O. Ethno-medicinal and culinary uses of Moringa oleifera Lam. in Nigeria. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research. 2013; 7(13):799-804.

Oliveira JT, Silveira SB, Vasconcelos IM, Cavada BS, Moreira RA. Compositional and nutritional attributes of seeds from the multiple purpose tree Moringa oleifera Lamarck. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 1999 May; 79(6):815-20. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0010(19990501)79:6<815::AID-JSFA290>3.0.CO;2-P

Bukar A, Uba A, Oyeyi TI. Phytochemical analysis and antimicrobial activity of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) Benth. extracts againt some food--borne microrganisms. Advances in Environmental Biology. 2010 Jan: 74-80.

Arzai A H. Detection of β-lactamase producing microorganisms and their susceptibility to selected antibiotics and medicinal plant extracts. PhD thesis submitted to the Department of Biological Sciences, Bayero University, Kano. 2008.

Shailemo DH, Kwaambwa HM, Kandawa-Schulz M, Msagati TA. Antibacterial activity of Moringa ovalifolia and Moringa oleifera methanol, N-hexane and water seeds and bark extracts against pathogens that are implicated in water borne diseases. Green and Sustainable Chemistry. 2016; 6(02):71. doi: 10.4236/gsc.2016.62006

Patel S, Thakur AS, Chandy A, Manigauha A. Moringa oleifera: a review of there medicinal and economical importance to the health and nation. Drug invention today. 2010 Jul; 2(7):339-42.

Madsen M, Schlundt J, El Fadil EO. Effect of water coagulation by seeds of Moringa oleifera on. Journal of tropical medicine and hygiene. 1987; 90:101-9.




How to Cite

Rafi, U. ., Majid, M. ., Yasmeen, R., & Shazia Bokhari, S. . (2022). Antibacterial effect of Moringa oleifera Tea Leaves and Seeds Extracts Prepared in Chloroform against E. coli Isolated from Ostrich Feces: Antibacterial effect of Moringa oleifera Tea Leaves and Seeds Extracts. MARKHOR (The Journal of Zoology), 3(1), 29–32.



Original Article

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>