MARKHOR (The Journal of Zoology) <p><strong>Title of Journal:</strong> MARKHOR (ISSN Online: 2790-4385, Print: 2790-4377)</p> <p><strong>Frequency:</strong> Semi-Annual</p> <p><strong>Affiliated with</strong>: Lahore Medical Research Center</p> <p><strong>Website:</strong> (<a href=""></a>)</p> <p><strong>Address:</strong> 746-A, Kashmir Block, Allama Iqbal Town, Lahore, Pakistan</p> <p><strong>Published By:</strong> CrossLinks International Publishers (CLIP), Lahore, Pakistan</p> <p><strong>Website:</strong> (<a href=""></a>)</p> <p><strong>Address:</strong> 590-Karim Block, Allama Iqbal Town, Lahore, Pakistan</p> <p>Lahore Medical Research Center has published "<strong>MARKHOR</strong>, The Journal of Zoology (MJZ)"; a semi-annual, double blind peer-reviewed open access Journal. The aim of the Journal is to provide a platform for allied health professionals to publish their research work. All materials, articles and information published in <strong>MARKHOR</strong> will be peer-reviewed.</p> <p>Research papers, Short communications, Review or mini-reviews, Commentaries, Perspectives, opinion, Meta-analysis, Case reports, Case studies, Case-control studies</p> <p>Reviews on recent progress in The Journal of Zoology are commissioned by the editors. The purpose of the <strong>MARKHOR</strong> is to publish scientific and technical research papers to bring attention of international researchers, scientists, academicians, health care professionals towards recent advancements in the field of Zoology. The articles are collected in the form of reviews, original studies, clinical studies etc. It may serve as a global platform for scientists in relevant fields to connect and mutually share ideas. This journal is open to all the research professionals whose work fall within our scope.</p> <p><strong><u>Articles Submission &amp; Publication Fee</u></strong></p> <p>Processing Charges: None</p> <p>Publication Charges: None</p> <p><strong>Waiver Policy</strong></p> <p>If an author has no funds to pay such charges, he may request for full or partial waiver of publication fees. The decision may however vary from case to case.</p> <p>We do not want charges to prevent the publication of worthy material.</p> <p><strong> Submission</strong> are welcome and may be submitted here.</p> <p><a href=""></a></p> en-US <p>This is an open-access journal and all the published articles / items are distributed under the terms of the <a href="">Creative Commons Attribution License</a>, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. For comments <a href=""></a></p> (Prof. Dr. Riffat Mehboob) (Khurram Mehboob) Mon, 03 Jul 2023 14:02:46 +0000 OJS 60 Population and Distribution of Himalayan Tahr (Hemitragus jemlahicus) in Lamtang National Park of the Nepal Himalaya <p>The Himalayan ecosystems, which are among the least studied mountain ecosystems, face threats and habitat degradation due to unplanned development, natural calamities, and overgrazing. Ungulates like Himalayan tahrs (<em>Hemitragus jemlahicus</em>), play a crucial role in mountain ecology as it forms the major prey base of the top predators of mountain ecosystems. <strong>Objective:</strong> To explore the population status, distribution, and habitat uses of Himalayan tahrs in Lamtang National Park (LNP), Central Nepal by line transect method during May 2022. <strong>Methods:</strong> Total 20 transects each of about 500 m length were established randomly along the Lamtang River at different elevations from 3100m to 4300m and Himalayan tahrs were observed. <strong>Results:</strong> A total of 154 Himalayan tahrs were recorded from 9 herds that accounted for an average herd size of 17.1 ± 5.77 individuals. The elevational distribution of the herds ranged between 3107 m and 4200 m asl. Their preferred habitat was rocky cliffs, with grasslands, shrublands, and rhododendron-fir-mixed forests being utilized to a lesser extent. The tahrs predominantly inhabited rugged terrain on south-facing slopes, prioritizing it over other available habitats. <strong>Conclusions:</strong> The demographic indices of the Himalayan tahrs in the LNP show a remarkable decline when compared with the previous studies in the same area in 1976 and 2006. Therefore, conservation and management initiatives of the Himalayan tahrs are urgently needed in the LNP</p> Pravat Dhakal, Ranjit Kumar Sharma, Birat Raj Rajak, Naresh Pandey, Laxman Khanal Copyright (c) 2023 MARKHOR (The Journal of Zoology) Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of Cardiac Profile in CCl4 Induced Toxicity in Albino Rats <p>The use of consumer and fumigant products like CCl<sub>4</sub> has been phased down, leaving only industrial usage. It is extremely harmful to one's health. It's also one of the most toxic substances in vital organs like the lungs, kidneys, liver, heart, and brain.<strong> Objective: </strong>To evaluate the cardiac profile in CCl<sub>4</sub>-induced toxicity in albino rats. <strong>Methods:</strong> The research was conducted at animal home of Department of Zoology, University of Okara. The targeted victims were albino rats. There were two types of groups created: control group&nbsp;and experimental group. The rats were fed 30 percent diluted carbon tetrachloride with normal saline as a control group to see if it had an adverse effect on their cardiac profile. A 12-day trek was used to accomplish this. After 12 days, samples were taken or dissected to assess serum Creatine Kinase (CPK), (CK-MB), and (LDH). The samples were analyzed by a machine called Micro-Lab 300 after they were taken by puncturing the Rats' hearts. <strong>Results:</strong> Abnormal increased level for Creatine Kinase (CPK) (199.20 ± 1.93) was observed after the administration of CCl4 compared to normal control (71.60 ± 4.04). When CCl<sub>4</sub> was injected, the level of CK-MB was abnormally high (34.00 ± 1.21) compared to the normal control (16.00± .84). The level of LDH increased abnormally (291.60 ± 5.01) when CCl<sub>4</sub> was given, compared to the normal control (250.20± 2.16). <strong>Conclusions:</strong> The levels of Creatine Kinase (CPK), CK-MB, and LDH were found to be greater than normal, showing that CCl<sub>4</sub> is hazardous to rats cardiac profile.</p> Sania Murtaza, Muhammad Khalil Ahmad Khan Copyright (c) 2023 MARKHOR (The Journal of Zoology) Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Teratogenic Effects of Lead in the Developing Chick Embryos <p>Lead (heavy metal) can be found in trace levels in the crust of the planet. It may be harmful to both human and animals' health. Nearly all body's organs and systems can be affected by lead and mainly found in smelting and mining areas.&nbsp; <strong>Objective:</strong> To estimate the effect of lead on chick embryos at morphologic, morphometric, and histological levels and to study the toxic effects of lead in developing chick embryos <strong>Methods:</strong> Fertilized eggs were separated into three groups. Two groups were treated with varying concentrations of lead as experimental groups, untreated designated as control group. The dose was administered on the fourth day of incubation, and recovery occurred on the ninth day. <strong>Results:</strong> Significant differences (p&lt;0.000) and (p&lt;0.001) in CR length, body weight, head size, eye circumference, forelimb and hindlimb were reported. Morphological abnormalities such as hydrocephaly, microcephaly, beak shortening, agenesis, Amelia, micromelia, anophthalmia, microphthalmia, and kyphosis were seen. It also revealed various abnormalities in important organs such as irregular cerebral folia, necrotic intestine, and hemorrhages in bursa fabricious. Lead has been shown in various combinations to cause embryotoxicity and teratological effects in chick embryos. <strong>Conclusions:</strong> Lead is a harmful pollutant and may be responsible for various developmental anomalies in livings beings including animals and humans.</p> Aqsa Shafiq, . Mahnoor, Mirza Fahad Baig, Yashal Fatima, Arooj Haer, Shakila Parveen, Muhammad Akram Tariq, Muhammad Khalil Ahmad Khan Copyright (c) 2023 MARKHOR (The Journal of Zoology) Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 A Study on Association of Stress Related Problems with Gastrointestinal Disorders in University Students <p>Psychological stress may lead to different physiological problems in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). <strong>Objective:</strong> To study the association of stress with gastrointestinal (GIT) disorders as stress has been found to play a key role in the pathophysiology of the human body. <strong>Methods:</strong> A cross-sectional study including 300 female students from different departments of Lahore College for Women University, was done. The females were categorized into two groups. Group A (n= 111) comprises females of age between 15 to 20 years. Group B of age group between 21 to 28 years including 189 females (n= 189). Demographic measurements such as weight, height and BMI were taken of all subjects. Stress, bloating, acidity in the stomach, iron supplements and intake of junk food was reported via questionnaire. All the data were collected and analyzed. <strong>Results:</strong> The mean age± SD of group A was (18.80± 1.40013) and the mean age ± SD of group B was (22.42 ± 1.447). In group A, 77% of females take stress and in group B, 82% of females take stress out of 111 with (p&lt; 0.001). 16% of females feel bloating in the stomach in group A and 23% of females in group B with (p&lt;0.002). 36% of females feel acidity in group A and 49% in group B with (p&lt;0.002). 70% of females take junk food regularly in group A and 71% in group B with (p&lt;0.001). <strong>Conclusions:</strong> The percentage of stress and GIT problems was slightly higher in the larger age group.</p> Farah Ashfaq, Sara Hayee, Shahida Wali Muhammad, . Bint-e-Zainab Copyright (c) 2023 MARKHOR (The Journal of Zoology) Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Body Composition and Fatty Acid Profile of Carps under the Influence of Ammonium Nitrate and Feed Supplementation <p>Aquaculture plays a significant role in the food requirements of an increasing population. Fertilization, composition of diet and its feeding rates affect the fish meat quality. <strong>Objectives:</strong> To observe the body composition and fatty acid profile of carps towards rice polish and maize gluten supplementation in ammonium nitrate fertilized ponds. <strong>Methods:</strong> Two earthen ponds containing total 55 fishes were selected with each pond stocked with Rohu (<em>Labeo rohita</em>), Silver carp (<em>Hypophthalmichthys molitrix</em>) and Mori (<em>Cirrhinus mrigala</em>) at the final ratio of 2:1:1 respectively. Ammonium nitrate and rice polish was the feed in pond 1 while ammonium nitrate and maize gluten were the feed in pond 2. <strong>Results:</strong> Proximate analysis of fish meat samples showed that <em>Labeo rohita</em> showed maximum moisture contents in P<sub>1</sub> (78.51%) and minimum in P<sub>2</sub> (77.27%) in <em>Hypophthalmichthys molitrix</em>. Maximum crude protein was recorded as (17.93%) in <em>L. rohita</em>, under P<sub>2</sub> whereas minimum crude protein was observed in P<sub>1</sub> (16.81%) in <em>L. rohita</em>. <em>C. mrigala </em>remained well-known with minimum fat contents (1.71%) in P<sub>2</sub> but maximum (1.96) in <em>Labeo rohita </em>in P<sub>2</sub>. <em>H. molitrix</em> gave the major ash contents of (1.85%) in P<sub>1</sub> as compared to other experimental fish species. Highest position of carbohydrate contents in P<sub>1</sub> was occupied by<em> H. molitrix</em>. The most abundant fatty acids recovered were monounsaturated fatty acids (37%) followed by polyunsaturated fatty acids (33%) and saturated fatty acids (29%). <strong>Conclusions:</strong> The body composition and fatty acid profile of carps varies depending upon their diet and feeding rate.</p> Javaria Ramzan, Muhammad Asif Abbas Tahir, Rimsha Khan, Sumaira Kulachi, Sajid Mahmood, Sikandar Hayat Copyright (c) 2023 MARKHOR (The Journal of Zoology) Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The Role of Protected Areas in Safeguarding Markhor Populations <p>Protected areas have long been recognized as vital tools in preserving biodiversity and safeguarding endangered species. In the case of the majestic markhor, a species of wild goat found in the mountainous regions of Pakistan and neighboring countries, protected areas play a crucial role in ensuring the survival and recovery of their populations. These designated regions provide a sanctuary where markhors can thrive, free from human disturbances and threats. Understanding and strengthening the role of protected areas is essential for securing the future of markhor populations. Protected areas offer numerous benefits for markhor conservation. Firstly, these areas provide critical habitats that meet the specific needs of markhors, including suitable vegetation, adequate food sources, and safe breeding grounds. By designating protected areas, we can create an environment where markhors can engage in natural behaviors and maintain healthy population dynamics.</p> <p>Secondly, protected areas act as a shield against human activities that pose a threat to markhors, such as habitat destruction, illegal hunting, and human-wildlife conflicts. Strict regulations and enforcement within these areas deter poaching and ensure the security of markhor populations. By mitigating these anthropogenic pressures, protected areas offer a refuge for markhors to flourish and recover their numbers. Furthermore, protected areas provide opportunities for scientific research, monitoring, and conservation initiatives. Through ongoing studies, researchers can gain valuable insights into markhor behavior, population dynamics, and habitat requirements. This knowledge informs evidence-based conservation strategies, guiding efforts to ensure the long-term survival of markhors and their ecosystems.</p> <p>However, it is important to recognize that protected areas alone cannot guarantee the conservation of markhor populations. Effective management plans, community engagement, and collaboration between government agencies, local communities, and conservation organizations are crucial. Engaging local communities in conservation efforts can foster a sense of ownership, encourage sustainable practices, and mitigate conflicts between humans and markhors.</p> <p>Protected areas play a pivotal role in safeguarding markhor populations by providing them with secure habitats, protection from threats, and opportunities for scientific research and conservation initiatives. However, the success of markhor conservation relies on comprehensive management plans, community involvement, and collaborative efforts. By recognizing the significance of protected areas and strengthening their management, we can ensure the preservation of this magnificent species for generations to come. The markhor's survival is not only a testament to the effectiveness of protected areas but also a symbol of our commitment to protecting the world's biodiversity and natural heritage.</p> Riffat Mehboob Copyright (c) 2023 MARKHOR (The Journal of Zoology) Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000