MARKHOR (The Journal of Zoology) <p><strong>Title of Journal:</strong> MARKHOR (ISSN Online: 2790-4385, Print: 2790-4377)</p> <p><strong>Frequency:</strong> BIANNUAL</p> <p><strong>Affiliated with</strong>: Lahore Medical Research Center</p> <p><strong>Website:</strong> (<a href=""></a>)</p> <p><strong>Address:</strong> 746-A, Kashmir Block, Allama Iqbal Town, Lahore, Pakistan</p> <p><strong>Published By:</strong> CrossLinks International Publishers (CLIP), Lahore, Pakistan</p> <p><strong>Website:</strong> (<a href=""></a>)</p> <p><strong>Address:</strong> 590-Karim Block, Allama Iqbal Town, Lahore, Pakistan</p> <p>Lahore Medical Research Center has published "<strong>MARKHOR</strong>, The Journal of Zoology (MJZ)"; an annually, double blind peer-reviewed open access Journal. The aim of the Journal is to provide a platform for allied health professionals to publish their research work. All materials, articles and information published in <strong>MARKHOR</strong> will be peer-reviewed.</p> <p>Research papers, Short communications, Review or mini-reviews, Commentaries, Perspectives, opinion, Meta-analysis, Case reports, Case studies, Case-control studies</p> <p>Reviews on recent progress in The Journal of Zoology are commissioned by the editors. The purpose of the <strong>MARKHOR</strong> is to publish scientific and technical research papers to bring attention of international researchers, scientists, academicians, health care professionals towards recent advancements in the field of Zoology. The articles are collected in the form of reviews, original studies, clinical studies etc. It may serve as a global platform for scientists in relevant fields to connect and mutually share ideas. This journal is open to all the research professionals whose work fall within our scope. Submission are welcome and may be submitted here.</p> CrossLinks International Publishers en-US MARKHOR (The Journal of Zoology) 2790-4377 <p>This is an open-access journal and all the published articles / items are distributed under the terms of the <a href="">Creative Commons Attribution License</a>, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. For comments <a href=""></a></p> Efficacy Of Aloe Vera Powder in Bioremediation of Heavy Metals from Waste Water <p>Water is important component of life but on earth, major part of water is wasted without human consumption. The resulting scarce water conditions along with continuous pollution of existing fresh water bodies are the serious challenges in current times. Addition of Heavy metals in water results in water toxicity and pollution. The presence of heavy metals in wastewater causes toxic effects on living organisms. The removal of metals from waste water can be removed by the process of bio sorption that results in the metals absorption on the biological surfaces. <strong>Objective:</strong> Keeping in consideration, present study was aimed for the removal of heavy metals from wastewater by using aloe vera leaf powder as adsorbent. <strong>Methods: </strong>Adsorption experiments of different metals in waste water were done using different percentages of Aloe Vera powder and results were recorded in terms of change in pH of solutions.<strong> Results:</strong> Alovera present at low percentages in mixture showed less adsorption. Similarly, adsorption was found to be higher with higher alovera percentage showing decrease in pH of the mixture. Atomic absorption spectrophotometric determination was done for metal Zn while analysis of Na was done using flame photometric technique for adsorption of metals in waste water. Results showed that 1.4 % alovera powder has used the metal absorbent efficiency was 9.495 %. However, with addition of 4 % alovera powder, percentage efficiency was increased to 10.237 % showing positive effect of alovera powder on metal extraction. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> By flame photometry of sodium result showed that extraction efficiency was 500 % using aloe vera powder. Aloe vera plant was proved to be an excellent biomaterial for accumulating metal ions from wastewater due to its outstanding uptake capacity.</p> Maleeha Shamsher Afifa Tajammal Aisha Waheed Qurashi Uzma Rafi Copyright (c) 2022 MARKHOR (The Journal of Zoology) 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 13 18 10.54393/mjz.v3i1.37 Invitro Study on the Combined Effects of Natural Ingredients and Antimicrobial Drugs as Novel Anti Biofilm Approach <p>Biofilm forming bacteria stick to one another or to the different surfaces or interface. Biofilm formation is not a good thing in many ways as they go with low metabolic rate and passed with less number of cell divisions. <strong>Objective:</strong> To find some novel anti-biofilm approaches against biofilms. <strong>Methods:</strong> Soil and water samples were collected from four sites. Soil samples were collected from agricultural land and road side of Hudiara village, Lahore, Pakistan. However, water samples were collected from BRB canal which is situated in village Barki and from tube well of village Hudiara located in Lahore district Punjab, Pakistan. For biochemical identification of isolates different types of biochemical tests such as MR, VP, SIM (motility), H<sub>2</sub>S, catalase, Indole and nitrate reduction were performed. <strong>Results: </strong>Some antibiotics and their combinations with different other antibiotics were checked and it was noticed the overall effects of antibiotics on bacterial biofilms have positive effects except disprin and Levofloxacin. While, Ciprofloxacin was found as an effective antibiotic. Combination of ciprofloxacin and disprin was used in order to remove the biofilm and it worked well to remove the biofilm. <strong>Conclusions:</strong> Different antimicrobial medications, all-natural compounds, and combinations of various antibiotics, including ciprofloxacin-disprin, clarithromycin-moxifloxacin, and certain all-natural ingredients like honey, ginger, and lemon juice, were utilized to remove bacterial biofilms. Thus, it can be said that most of the combinations produced better biofilm removal outcomes than the individual elements did.</p> . Kehkashan Aqeela Ashraf Afeefa Chaudhry Roheela Yasmeen Copyright (c) 2022 MARKHOR (The Journal of Zoology) 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 19 24 10.54393/mjz.v3i1.43 Cancer: The Most Feared Disease <p>With an estimated 21 million people, Pakistan is a heavily populated, developing nation. The general population's lack of awareness, an unclean lifestyle, and unsanitary circumstances in populated regions are the main causes of Pakistan's endemic prevalence of various infectious and non-communicable diseases. Studies on the prevalence and incidence of cancer in Pakistan are extremely rare. Only Karachi and Lahore previously had cancer registers, but in 2015 the Pakistan Health Research Council (PHRC) in Islamabad launched a national cancer registry. Females have a significantly higher age-standardized ratio for cancer (172/100000) than males have (145/100000). Recently, Pakistan has seen 150,000 new cases of cancer, with 60–80 percent of patients dying. In Pakistan, between 7000 and 7500 kids are diagnosed with cancer each year.</p> <p>In Pakistan, communicable illnesses and malnutrition are the leading causes of child mortality. Better diagnostic tools have led to cancer being a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in children. Data readily available indicates that 10% of all cancer cases reported in 2017 were juvenile malignancies. According to Pakistan's Karachi Cancer Registry, the two most common children cancers are leukaemia (31%) and lymphomas (20%). According to data from the Punjab Cancer Registry, lymphomas (31%) are more common than leukaemia (23%) overall. The recently established PHRC National Cancer Registry has very little information available at this time that demonstrates the prevalence of children cancers.</p> <p>An accurate surveillance system for cancer incidence and death is absolutely necessary. Population-based cancer registries are quite rare in the nation. There ought to be more cancer registries in a nation with more than 21 million citizens. In Pakistan, the most often diagnosed cancers are head and neck carcinoma, colon, prostate, lung, breast, and liver cancers. Different malignancies have varying chances of being cured. But every malignancy requires a unique approach to treatment. Different methods of fighting cancer include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation treatment, bone marrow transplant, immunotherapy, hormone therapy, targeted medication therapy, and cryoablation. The mechanism for gathering data needs to be improved, and the data should be pooled at the national level. Only when such data are available will it be possible for policymakers to allocate priceless healthcare resources sensibly.</p> Farkhanda Manzoor Copyright (c) 2022 MARKHOR (The Journal of Zoology) 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 01 01 10.54393/mjz.v3i1.27 Microemulsions; A Mini Review <p>The review goes into great detail about the microemulsions' characteristics, structure, kinds, theories, characterization, and applications. They may be made easily by mixing the various ingredients together without the need for special tools or circumstances. Unlike the o/w type microemulsion, which has an aqueous continuous phase and oil droplets distributed in it, the w/o type microemulsion has oil as the continuous phase and water as droplets are disseminated in it. Microemulsions are classified into four primary categories based on different phase systems, and they are often utilized in the pharmaceutical and cosmetics sectors as well as in analytical methods. The design of medicine formulations and cosmetics may benefit from having a thorough understanding of the physicochemical and biological characteristics of microemulsions.</p> Ayesha Aslam Maria Fareed Siddiqui Copyright (c) 2022 MARKHOR (The Journal of Zoology) 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 03 07 10.54393/mjz.v3i1.40 Desalination of Saline Water: A Review <p>Water is the most important requirement for life that is used for different purposes such as drinking, bathing, laundry and for many other various industrial applications. Clean water is the basic need of every human being. But the fresh water availability is limited now a days. Scarcity of water and untrustworthy water quality are the most important and major problems, so to attain the best water quality, desalinization of saline water is the alternate way to get the pure water and to improve the quality of life. Sea water covered almost the 94 % of the earth’s surface and support the various commercial purposes. Saline water originates from different other sources as well such as agriculture, aquacultures and many other industries including chemical, pharmaceutical industries. Saline water contains high amount of salt concentration and other contaminants, which affects the terrestrial and aquatic both lives. Desalination of saline water, is done to eradicate minerals including salts, from saline water. Thus, the treatment of saline water for the removal of contaminants and salt from the water is the important task now a days in many countries. Many different conventional methods are used for the treating of saline water, but all these methods are costly and has limited applications for limited areas. Generally saline water is treated with the chemical and physical methods. Biological methods and nanobiotechnology are also used now a days. This review highlights the different conventional and non-conventional, nanobiotechnology based and biological based methods that are used for the water desalination.</p> Yusra Ahsan Aisha Waheed Qurashi Roheela Yasmeen Copyright (c) 2022 MARKHOR (The Journal of Zoology) 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 08 12 10.54393/mjz.v3i1.36 Blind Indus Dolphin: Its Risk towards Extinction and Protective Measures <p>The Indus River dolphin, sometimes known as the blind dolphin, is a freshwater cetacean that is exclusively found in Pakistan's Indus River. The IUCN Red List of vulnerable species lists the Indus River dolphin as endangered due to an 80% drop in its distribution range and a habitat that has been badly disrupted by dams and degraded by water diversions. The blind dolphin is a member of one of the oldest families of cetaceans, which separated about 29 million years ago, or roughly 22 million years before the emergence of contemporary dolphins. Its eyes are little and its vision is weak. Typically, indus dolphins are observed either singly or in small groups of two to three dolphins. They can occasionally be found in bigger groups of 20 to 30 people. On the Indus mainstem, there are still five subpopulations of indus dolphins, each of which is divided by irrigation barrages. In Bear River, India, there is a tiny, isolated colony of 18 to 35 Indus River dolphins.</p> <p>The Indus River barrages capture the flowing water and redirect it into a vast network of irrigation canals that emerge from each barrage to meet the demand for water for agriculture. Dolphins from the Indus River frequently travel to irrigation canals using flow regulator gates that are adjusted to the barrages throughout the year. Dolphins become stuck after the canals are shut down for maintenance because of an unexpected water deficit. Since 1992, Sindh Wildlife Department and WWF-Pakistan have collaborated on a dolphin rescue initiative to carefully remove any stranded dolphins from canals and return them to the main river channel. Between 1992 and 2017, 147 dolphins were reported to be caught in canals. Of those, 130 dolphins were successfully recovered and released back into the river, while one dolphin perished in the process. Because they could not be saved. However, little is known regarding the post-release survival rate of the people that were rescued. A dolphin monitoring network has also been established by WWF-Pakistan and Sindh Wildlife Department in conjunction with pertinent stakeholders and neighborhood groups to keep an eye on the Indus River as well as its nearby canals and tributaries and to search for any dolphins that may be stranded there.</p> <p>One of the main risks to Indus dolphins is intensive fishing, which raises the risk of dolphin entanglement in fishing nets and, ultimately, their mortality, especially when they travel near irrigation canals. After the devastating flood of 2010, there was a noticeable rise in illegal fishing between the Guddu and Sukkur barrages. In addition, the altered fishing system in Sindh province significantly increased the number of fishing licenses granted and exacerbated the negative effects of illegal fishing on the Indus River dolphin. In 2011, the Indus River dolphin's death rate peaked with 45 dolphins being reported dead, the majority of which were found while fishing was at its busiest. Since that time, the frequencies of dolphin fatalities have significantly decreased, but they are still not entirely under control. Especially in the Indus Dolphin Game reserve between Guddu and Sukkur Barrages, saving stranded dolphins from the irrigation canals is crucial to maintaining this dolphin population during the low flow season. Standard procedures and tools, such as a soundproof truck, are required for dolphin rescue operations</p> Uzma Rafi Copyright (c) 2022 MARKHOR (The Journal of Zoology) 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 02 02 10.54393/mjz.v3i1.26