MARKHOR (The Journal of Zoology) <p><strong>Title of Journal:</strong> MARKHOR (ISSN Online: 2790-4385, Print: 2790-4377)</p> <p><strong>Frequency:</strong> Quarterly (w.e.f Jan, 2024)</p> <p><strong>Affiliated with</strong>: Lahore Medical Research Center</p> <p><strong>Website:</strong> (<a href=""></a>)</p> <p><strong>Published By:</strong> CrossLinks International Publishers (CLIP), Lahore, Pakistan</p> <p><strong>Website:</strong> (<a href=""></a>)</p> <p><strong>Address:</strong> 590-Karim Block, Allama Iqbal Town, Lahore, Pakistan</p> <p>Lahore Medical Research Center has published "<strong>MARKHOR</strong>, The Journal of Zoology (MJZ)"; a Quarterly Journal, double blind peer-reviewed open access Journal. The aim of the Journal is to provide a platform for allied health professionals to publish their research work. All materials, articles and information published in <strong>MARKHOR</strong> will be peer-reviewed.</p> <p>Research papers, Short communications, Review or mini-reviews, Commentaries, Perspectives, opinion, Meta-analysis, Case reports, Case studies, Case-control studies</p> <p>Reviews on recent progress in The Journal of Zoology are commissioned by the editors. The purpose of the <strong>MARKHOR</strong> is to publish scientific and technical research papers to bring attention of international researchers, scientists, academicians, health care professionals towards recent advancements in the field of Zoology. The articles are collected in the form of reviews, original studies, clinical studies etc. It may serve as a global platform for scientists in relevant fields to connect and mutually share ideas. This journal is open to all the research professionals whose work fall within our scope.</p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Accreditation:</strong></span></p> <p><strong>Approved by Higher Education Commission of Pakistan for the year 2023-24</strong></p> <p><strong><u>Articles Submission &amp; Publication Fee</u></strong></p> <p>Article Processing Fee: <strong>NONE</strong></p> <p>Article Publication Fee (National) Rs 20000 / Article</p> <p>Article Publication Fee (International ) 200 USD / Article</p> <p>Printed Version (Selected Articles on Authors Request): Rs 2500/per copy</p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Annual Subscription for Printed Versions</strong></span></p> <p>For Institutes: Rs 20,000/ Annually</p> <p>Single Copy (Selected Articles): Rs 2500/-</p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Waiver Policy</strong></span></p> <p>If an author has no funds to pay such charges, he may request for full or partial waiver of publication fees. The decision may however vary from case to case.</p> <p>We do not want charges to prevent the publication of worthy material.</p> <p><strong> Submission</strong> are welcome and may be submitted here <a href=""></a></p> CrossLinks International Publishers en-US MARKHOR (The Journal of Zoology) 2790-4377 <p>This is an open-access journal and all the published articles / items are distributed under the terms of the <a href="">Creative Commons Attribution License</a>, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. For comments <a href=""></a></p> Comparative Study on the Production, Performance and Various Eggs Characteristic of Rhode Island Red and Plymouth Rock Poultry Breeds <p>A comparative study was conducted at Arain Farm in Nasarpur, Sindh during to January 2024 to March 2024. <strong>Objective:</strong> To assess the production performance and egg quality of Plymouth Rock and Rhode Island Red chickens. <strong>Methods: </strong>A total of 105 birds (50 females and 5 males per breed) were selected for the study. The birds were divided into 10 groups, with 5 groups per breed. The chickens were fed layer feed L5, and various parameters including feed conversion ratio, egg weight, egg production, and egg quality characteristics were measured. <strong>Results:</strong> The results revealed that Rhode Island Red chickens showed higher egg weight and production, as well as more efficient feed utilization per kilogram of egg weight and per dozen eggs compared to Plymouth Rock chickens. Rhode Island Red chickens also exhibited higher values for yolk weight, shell weight, albumin weight, breaking strength, yolk index, and shell thickness. Haugh unit values did not differ significantly between the two breeds. <strong>Conclusions:</strong> Rhode Island Red chickens demonstrated superior production performance and egg quality characteristics in the Nasarpur region of Sindh.</p> Rameez Raja Kaleri Hubdar Ali Kaleri Muhammad Altaf Hussain Naimat Ullah Raz Hussain Abdul Ghafar Ghotia Muhammad Hayat Ahsan Zulfiqar Kaimkhani Imran Ahmed Mudasar Ahmed Khosa Copyright (c) 2024 MARKHOR (The Journal of Zoology) 2024-06-30 2024-06-30 02 06 10.54393/mjz.v5i02.100 Avian Flu: A Looming Threat to Global Health Security <p>Avian influenza A (H5N1), a highly pathogenic virus, known as bird flu is emerging as a serious global health security risk. Avian flu subtypes H5N1 and H7N9 circulate in bird populations worldwide with high genomic diversity and the ability to reconstruct with the human influenza virus to introduce new strains capable of zoonotic (human-to-human) transmission. Influenza virus evolves and develops new pathogenic strains very rapidly. Around 50 million people died due to the 1918 'Spanish flu' pandemic caused by an H1N1 influenza virus [1]. In addition to the H1N1 pandemic (Swine flu) in 2009, there have been a few other human AIV pandemics in the past decades: the H2N2 pandemic (Asian flu) in 1957 and the H3N2 pandemic (Hong Kong flu) in 1968 [2].</p> <p>The H5N1 outbreak not only infects birds but also breaks and crosses the interspecies barrier and affects mammals including animals and humans. &nbsp;H5N1 virus has limited human transmission because it binds to alpha-2, 3-linked sialic acid receptors (during its replication cycle) which are less abundant in the human respiratory system as compared to birds but its genetic reassortment ability makes it highly pathogenic and a health hazard for humans. The outbreak of the H5N1 virus has been reported currently in US dairy cows and workers. In humans, it can cause severe respiratory problems, multi-organ failure, and high mortality rates. Four humans have been affected since 2020 in the US [3]. <em>The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (</em>CDC) is thoroughly monitoring the people with animal exposure, carefully inspecting the situation, and currently reporting a low public health risk. Experts are raising alarm about the transfer of viruses from birds to humans and are urging the implementation of new protocols for handling airborne infectious diseases. However, the worldwide spread of H5N1 and its ability to infect mammals causes major threats regarding the potential for human-to-human transmission, which may result in a pandemic. In addition to its potential impact on human health, bird flu poses an immense threat to agriculture and food security because of its economic implications.</p> <p>As the avian flu continues to pose a persistent and evolving threat to global health security, national, regional, and global vigilance, preparedness, and collaborative actions are needed. It is important to maintain robust surveillance, respond rapidly, and innovative prevention and control strategies due to sporadic outbreaks of avian flu. Management of avian flu demands a coordinated effort to protect human and animal health, mitigate economic impacts, and improve the global health security</p> Muhammad Farhan Qadir Copyright (c) 2024 MARKHOR (The Journal of Zoology) 2024-06-30 2024-06-30 01 01 10.54393/mjz.v5i02.111