MARKHOR (The Journal of Zoology) https://markhorjournal.com/index.php/mjz <p><strong>Title of Journal:</strong> MARKHOR (ISSN Online: 2790-4385, Print: 2790-4377)</p> <p><strong>Frequency:</strong> Quarterly (w.e.f Jan, 2024)</p> <p><strong>Affiliated with</strong>: Lahore Medical Research Center</p> <p><strong>Website:</strong> (<a href="http://www.lmrc.com.pk">www.lmrc.com.pk</a>)</p> <p><strong>Published By:</strong> CrossLinks International Publishers (CLIP), Lahore, Pakistan</p> <p><strong>Website:</strong> (<a href="http://www.clip.com.pk">www.clip.com.pk</a>)</p> <p><strong>Address:</strong> 590-Karim Block, Allama Iqbal Town, Lahore, Pakistan</p> <p>Lahore Medical Research Center has published "<strong>MARKHOR</strong>, The Journal of Zoology (MJZ)"; a Quarterly Journal, double blind peer-reviewed open access Journal. The aim of the Journal is to provide a platform for allied health professionals to publish their research work. All materials, articles and information published in <strong>MARKHOR</strong> will be peer-reviewed.</p> <p>Research papers, Short communications, Review or mini-reviews, Commentaries, Perspectives, opinion, Meta-analysis, Case reports, Case studies, Case-control studies</p> <p>Reviews on recent progress in The Journal of Zoology are commissioned by the editors. The purpose of the <strong>MARKHOR</strong> is to publish scientific and technical research papers to bring attention of international researchers, scientists, academicians, health care professionals towards recent advancements in the field of Zoology. The articles are collected in the form of reviews, original studies, clinical studies etc. It may serve as a global platform for scientists in relevant fields to connect and mutually share ideas. This journal is open to all the research professionals whose work fall within our scope.</p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Accreditation:</strong></span></p> <p><strong>Approved by Higher Education Commission of Pakistan for the year 2023-24</strong></p> <p><strong><u>Articles Submission &amp; Publication Fee</u></strong></p> <p>Article Processing Fee: <strong>NONE</strong></p> <p>Article Publication Fee (National) Rs 20000 / Article</p> <p>Article Publication Fee (International ) 200 USD / Article</p> <p>Printed Version (Selected Articles on Authors Request): Rs 2500/per copy</p> <p><strong>Waiver Policy</strong></p> <p>If an author has no funds to pay such charges, he may request for full or partial waiver of publication fees. The decision may however vary from case to case.</p> <p>We do not want charges to prevent the publication of worthy material.</p> <p><strong> Submission</strong> are welcome and may be submitted here.</p> <p><a href="mailto:editor@markhorjournal.com">editor@markhorjournal.com</a></p> CrossLinks International Publishers en-US MARKHOR (The Journal of Zoology) 2790-4377 <p>This is an open-access journal and all the published articles / items are distributed under the terms of the <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">Creative Commons Attribution License</a>, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. For comments <a href="mailto:editor@markhorjournal.com">editor@markhorjournal.com</a></p> Growth Enhancement in Labeo rohita by replacing Conventional feed with Moringa Leaves (Moringa oleifera) Powder https://markhorjournal.com/index.php/mjz/article/view/68 <p><span class="TextRun SCXW158692370 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW158692370 BCX0">Aquaculture enhancement </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW158692370 BCX0">is </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW158692370 BCX0">the need of time </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW158692370 BCX0">to </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW158692370 BCX0">encounter</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW158692370 BCX0">the</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW158692370 BCX0">food demand of the tremendously increasing population</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW158692370 BCX0">. </span></span><span class="TextRun Highlight SCXW158692370 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW158692370 BCX0">Conventional animals</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW158692370 BCX0"> and </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW158692370 BCX0">plant</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW158692370 BCX0">s</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW158692370 BCX0">are equally important for </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW158692370 BCX0">human consumption, </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW158692370 BCX0">so examination of other little-researched </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW158692370 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW158692370 BCX0">nutritious</span></span><span class="TextRun Highlight SCXW158692370 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW158692370 BCX0">plants </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW158692370 BCX0">such as </span></span><span class="TextRun Highlight SCXW158692370 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW158692370 BCX0" data-ccp-charstyle="Emphasis">Moringa oleifera</span></span><span class="TextRun Highlight SCXW158692370 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW158692370 BCX0"> (Lam)</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW158692370 BCX0"> is necessary </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW158692370 BCX0">as</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW158692370 BCX0"> an </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW158692370 BCX0">alternative source of </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW158692370 BCX0">aquaculture food protein</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW158692370 BCX0"> that may be cost-effective</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW158692370 BCX0">. </span></span><span class="TextRun Highlight SCXW158692370 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW158692370 BCX0">Objective</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW158692370 BCX0">s</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW158692370 BCX0">:</span></span> <span class="TextRun Highlight SCXW158692370 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW158692370 BCX0">To investigate the growth response of </span></span><span class="TextRun Highlight SCXW158692370 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW158692370 BCX0">Labeo</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW158692370 BCX0">rohita</span> </span><span class="TextRun Highlight SCXW158692370 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW158692370 BCX0">species with the addition of </span></span><span class="TextRun Highlight SCXW158692370 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW158692370 BCX0">M. oleifera</span></span><span class="TextRun Highlight SCXW158692370 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW158692370 BCX0"> leaves in conventional food and assessment of economic return and prospects to increase the farmer’s income.</span> </span><span class="TextRun Highlight SCXW158692370 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW158692370 BCX0">Methods</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW158692370 BCX0">:</span></span> <span class="TextRun SCXW158692370 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW158692370 BCX0">The</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW158692370 BCX0">current</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW158692370 BCX0"> study was </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW158692370 BCX0">planned</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW158692370 BCX0"> to </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW158692370 BCX0">observe</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW158692370 BCX0">the </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW158692370 BCX0">growth response and biomass production </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW158692370 BCX0">in </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW158692370 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW158692370 BCX0">Labeo</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW158692370 BCX0">rohita</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW158692370 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW158692370 BCX0"> (Rohu)</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW158692370 BCX0"> with increased economic returns</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW158692370 BCX0"> while</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW158692370 BCX0"> feeding </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW158692370 BCX0">at </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW158692370 BCX0">different doses of MOL</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW158692370 BCX0"> (</span><span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW158692370 BCX0">i</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW158692370 BCX0">-e. 0%, 10%, and 20% inclusion in conventional </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW158692370 BCX0">feed</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW158692370 BCX0"> using MOL</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW158692370 BCX0">)</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW158692370 BCX0">. The </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW158692370 BCX0">present </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW158692370 BCX0">study was </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW158692370 BCX0">designed in earthen ponds at Wains Agricultural Farm, UC-52, Shah Sadiq </span><span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW158692370 BCX0">Nehang</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW158692370 BCX0">, </span><span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW158692370 BCX0">Shorkot</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW158692370 BCX0"> tehsil, Jhang district, Pakistan for 10 weeks (February to April 2018)</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW158692370 BCX0">.</span> </span><span class="TextRun SCXW158692370 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW158692370 BCX0">Results:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW158692370 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW158692370 BCX0">It was </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW158692370 BCX0">observed</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW158692370 BCX0"> that a 10% inclusion of MOL powder in conventional fishmeal produce batter biomass as compared to other doses.</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW158692370 BCX0"> At the end of the 10th week, </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW158692370 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW158692370 BCX0">L. </span><span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW158692370 BCX0">rohita</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW158692370 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW158692370 BCX0">produced</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW158692370 BCX0"> 65.16 g body weight with 10% inclusion </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW158692370 BCX0">whereas</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW158692370 BCX0">a 63.20 g </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW158692370 BCX0">increase </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW158692370 BCX0">was </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW158692370 BCX0">observed</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW158692370 BCX0">with a conventional diet. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW158692370 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW158692370 BCX0">Conclusion</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW158692370 BCX0">s</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW158692370 BCX0">:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW158692370 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW158692370 BCX0">It was inferred that aggregate saving was about 13% when fish was fed with MOL powder diet. </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW158692370 BCX0">Thus, the </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW158692370 BCX0">present </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW158692370 BCX0">study proved a cost-effective approach for fish farming</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW158692370 BCX0"> in developing countries like Pakistan</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW158692370 BCX0">. </span></span><span class="EOP SCXW158692370 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{&quot;134233279&quot;:true,&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:240,&quot;469777462&quot;:[720],&quot;469777927&quot;:[0],&quot;469777928&quot;:[1]}"> </span></p> Muhammad Nawaz Muhammad Ayyoub Tanvir Muhammad Ammar Abdul Majid khan Muhammad Imran Iqra Rehman Copyright (c) 2023 MARKHOR (The Journal of Zoology) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 27 32 10.54393/mjz.v4i02.68 Influence of Different Levels of Cyanazine on Blood Picture of Labeo rohita https://markhorjournal.com/index.php/mjz/article/view/71 <p><span class="TextRun SCXW237713770 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW237713770 BCX8">The freshwater fish </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW237713770 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW237713770 BCX8">Labeo</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW237713770 BCX8">rohita</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW237713770 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW237713770 BCX8"> is found in Asian countries and around the world. </span><span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW237713770 BCX8">Cyanazine</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW237713770 BCX8">herbicide </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW237713770 BCX8">produce extensive threat to </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW237713770 BCX8">freshwater</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW237713770 BCX8"> fishes</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW237713770 BCX8"> and </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW237713770 BCX8">used to control annual grasses and broadleaf weeds</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW237713770 BCX8">. Subsequently, </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW237713770 BCX8">freshwater</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW237713770 BCX8"> ecosystem was facing potential risk due to extensive application of </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW237713770 BCX8">this </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW237713770 BCX8">herbicide. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW237713770 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW237713770 BCX8">Objective:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW237713770 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW237713770 BCX8"> T</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW237713770 BCX8">o find the toxic effects of </span><span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW237713770 BCX8">cyanazine</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW237713770 BCX8"> on hematological parameters of </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW237713770 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW237713770 BCX8">Labeo</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW237713770 BCX8">rohita</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW237713770 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW237713770 BCX8">. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW237713770 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW237713770 BCX8">Methods:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW237713770 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW237713770 BCX8">For this </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW237713770 BCX8">purpose,</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW237713770 BCX8"> fish was divided into four groups. Ten fish were introduced into each group. The group 1 </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW237713770 BCX8">was</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW237713770 BCX8"> taken as control group. The group 2, 3 and 4 were treated groups and exposed to different concentration of </span><span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW237713770 BCX8">cyanazine</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW237713770 BCX8"> 3µgL</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW237713770 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun Superscript SCXW237713770 BCX8" data-fontsize="12">-1</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW237713770 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW237713770 BCX8">, 6µgL</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW237713770 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun Superscript SCXW237713770 BCX8" data-fontsize="12">-</span><span class="NormalTextRun Superscript SCXW237713770 BCX8" data-fontsize="12">1</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW237713770 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW237713770 BCX8"> and 8µgL</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW237713770 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun Superscript SCXW237713770 BCX8" data-fontsize="12">-</span><span class="NormalTextRun Superscript SCXW237713770 BCX8" data-fontsize="12">1</span> </span><span class="TextRun SCXW237713770 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW237713770 BCX8">respectively. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW237713770 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW237713770 BCX8">Results:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW237713770 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW237713770 BCX8">The current study showed that WBC, RBC, HGB and HCT increased while the MCV, MCH, MCHC and PLT decreased significantly.</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW237713770 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW237713770 BCX8">Conclusions:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW237713770 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW237713770 BCX8"> Hematological parameters of </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW237713770 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW237713770 BCX8">L</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW237713770 BCX8">.</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW237713770 BCX8">rohita</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW237713770 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW237713770 BCX8"> were significantly affected by exposure to </span><span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW237713770 BCX8">Cyanazine</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW237713770 BCX8">. These alterations </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW237713770 BCX8">indicate</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW237713770 BCX8"> that </span><span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW237713770 BCX8">Cyanazine</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW237713770 BCX8"> can potentially disrupt the fish's hematological balance, which could have implications for its overall healt</span></span></p> Sidra Ayesha Sikandar Hayat Sobia Alyas Sajid Mahmood Muhammad Asif Abbas Tahir Shahid Suleman Copyright (c) 2023 MARKHOR (The Journal of Zoology) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 33 38 10.54393/mjz.v4i02.71 Chrysomya rufifacies: Developmental Analysis Over Range of Temperature https://markhorjournal.com/index.php/mjz/article/view/72 <p>Forensic entomology deals with the study of insects used in criminal investigations. Insects are drawn from the beginning to the decaying carcass and deposit their eggs. Forensic investigators can easily identify the cause of death, the postmortem index, and any changes in the posture of the dead body by observing the insect larval growth and population. <strong>Objective:</strong> To increase students' interest in pursuing careers related to forensic entomology, this study aims to determine the usefulness and viability of forensic entomology in Pakistan. This also creates an understanding of insects' lifestyles, awareness about beneficial insects, and the development of critical thinking. Forensic entomology plays a role in situations where the body has been dead for a while. <strong>Methods: </strong>The Maggot Blow Fly (<em>Chrysomya rufifacies</em>) was studied to determine the time since death using insects as evidence. The research at the University of Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan focused on the fly's life cycle and development under different temperature conditions. The aim was to establish the accuracy of using the fly and its life cycle to estimate postmortem interval. <strong>Results:</strong> The following conditions were observed: temperature (humid) 190˚C–230˚C and cold temperature (dry) 160˚C–220˚C. Room temperature includes Cold Temperature (Humid) at 230˚C -280˚C and Dry at 220˚C - 260˚C. <strong>Conclusions:</strong> <em>Chrysomya rufifacies</em> employed in this study have shown that the growth cycle is affected by changes in temperature, and these characteristics may be used to predict the minimal period of death.</p> Anwaar Iftikhar Rida Farooq Muhammad Ali Mehvish Mumtaz Ruhma Maqsood Mubeen Akhtar Muddasar Wahab Sadaf Aslam Mariyam Munir Fatima Yaqoob Copyright (c) 2023 MARKHOR (The Journal of Zoology) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 39 44 10.54393/mjz.v4i02.72 Estimation of Lipid Profile in CCl4 Induced Toxicity in Albino Rats https://markhorjournal.com/index.php/mjz/article/view/73 <p><span class="TextRun SCXW133375405 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW133375405 BCX8">The combination of chlorine and chloroform in the presence of light produce</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW133375405 BCX8">s</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW133375405 BCX8"> carbon tetrachloride (CCl</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW133375405 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun Subscript SCXW133375405 BCX8" data-fontsize="12">4</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW133375405 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW133375405 BCX8">)</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW133375405 BCX8">,</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW133375405 BCX8"> a </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW133375405 BCX8">colorless</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW133375405 BCX8">, volatile, non-inflammable liquid. It is a clear liquid with a sweet </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW133375405 BCX8">odor</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW133375405 BCX8"> that can be perceived at low levels and does not occur naturally. It poses a </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW133375405 BCX8">significant</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW133375405 BCX8"> hazard to one's health</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW133375405 BCX8"> and</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW133375405 BCX8">is </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW133375405 BCX8">also one of the leading sources of toxicity in </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW133375405 BCX8">critical</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW133375405 BCX8"> organs such as the lungs, kidneys, liver, and brain.</span> </span><span class="TextRun SCXW133375405 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW133375405 BCX8">Objectives:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW133375405 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW133375405 BCX8"> T</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW133375405 BCX8">o </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW133375405 BCX8">determine</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW133375405 BCX8"> the lipid profile with CCl</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW133375405 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun Subscript SCXW133375405 BCX8" data-fontsize="12">4</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW133375405 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW133375405 BCX8">-induced in albino rats.</span> </span><span class="TextRun SCXW133375405 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW133375405 BCX8">Methods:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW133375405 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW133375405 BCX8">The research was </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW133375405 BCX8">conducted</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW133375405 BCX8"> at the University of Okara, Department of Zoology. The experiment was conducted at </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW133375405 BCX8">the </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW133375405 BCX8">animal home of </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW133375405 BCX8">the </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW133375405 BCX8">Department of Zoology, University of Okara. Albino Rats were the intended targets. There were two groups created: a control group and an experimental group. To test the harmful effect on the lipid profile, the rats were fed 30 </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW133375405 BCX8">per cent</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW133375405 BCX8"> diluted carbon tetrachloride, with normal saline as a control group. This was </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW133375405 BCX8">accomplished</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW133375405 BCX8"> through a 12-day tr</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW133375405 BCX8">ia</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW133375405 BCX8">l. Sampling or dissection was done after 12 days to </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW133375405 BCX8">determine</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW133375405 BCX8"> serum Total Cholesterol, Triglycerides, high</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW133375405 BCX8">-</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW133375405 BCX8">density lipoprotein (HDL), and low</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW133375405 BCX8">-</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW133375405 BCX8">density lipoprotein (LDL). Rats were dissected</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW133375405 BCX8">,</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW133375405 BCX8"> and their hearts were punctured to obtain a blood sample and organs. After sampling was taken by puncturing the Rats' hearts, the samples were examined by a machine called Micro-Lab 300. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW133375405 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW133375405 BCX8">Results:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW133375405 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW133375405 BCX8">Total Cholesterol, Triglycerides, HDL, and LDL levels were higher than </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW133375405 BCX8">usual</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW133375405 BCX8">. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW133375405 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW133375405 BCX8">Conclusions:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW133375405 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW133375405 BCX8"> The study </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW133375405 BCX8">indicat</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW133375405 BCX8">ed</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW133375405 BCX8"> that CCl</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW133375405 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun Subscript SCXW133375405 BCX8" data-fontsize="12">4</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW133375405 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW133375405 BCX8"> has a toxic effect on the lipid profile of rats</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW133375405 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW133375405 BCX8">.</span></span><span class="EOP SCXW133375405 BCX8" data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:240}"> </span></p> Muhammad Khalil Ahmad Khan Sana Murtaza Mirza Fahad Baig Muhammad Javed Khan . Mahnoor Copyright (c) 2023 MARKHOR (The Journal of Zoology) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 45 50 10.54393/mjz.v4i02.73 Seasonal Distribution of Copepods as Influenced by Physicochemical Parameters in Khanki Headworks, Pakistan https://markhorjournal.com/index.php/mjz/article/view/78 <p><span class="TextRun SCXW18465253 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW18465253 BCX8">Copepods </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW18465253 BCX8">are tiny aquatic animals. </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW18465253 BCX8">Their role in aquatic food chains is very crucial as t</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW18465253 BCX8">hey</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW18465253 BCX8"> are involved in organic matter circulation and energy transfer </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW18465253 BCX8">between different trophic levels</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW18465253 BCX8">.</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW18465253 BCX8"> They are important source of food for fish larvae and </span><span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW18465253 BCX8">zoo</span><span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW18465253 BCX8">planktivorous</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW18465253 BCX8"> fish.</span> </span><span class="TextRun SCXW18465253 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW18465253 BCX8">Objective:</span> </span><span class="TextRun SCXW18465253 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW18465253 BCX8">T</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW18465253 BCX8">o assess the influence of environmental variables on the abundance, </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW18465253 BCX8">diversity</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW18465253 BCX8"> and seasonal variations of planktonic </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW18465253 BCX8">c</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW18465253 BCX8">opepods in </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW18465253 BCX8">Khanki</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW18465253 BCX8">Headworks</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW18465253 BCX8">, Pakistan.</span> </span><span class="TextRun SCXW18465253 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW18465253 BCX8">Method</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW18465253 BCX8">s</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW18465253 BCX8">:</span> </span><span class="TextRun SCXW18465253 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW18465253 BCX8">For the analysis of environmental variables monthly water samples from four</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW18465253 BCX8"> selected</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW18465253 BCX8"> sites were collected for a period of one year (February 2021 to January 2022).</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW18465253 BCX8"> Environmental variables were analyzed in laboratory by following standard procedures.</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW18465253 BCX8"> Month wise samples of copepods were collected with planktonic net (mesh size: 37</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW18465253 BCX8">µ</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW18465253 BCX8">m) from four locations (each with 3 sub-site</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW18465253 BCX8">s</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW18465253 BCX8">).</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW18465253 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW18465253 BCX8">Result</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW18465253 BCX8">s</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW18465253 BCX8">:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW18465253 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW18465253 BCX8"> In total, 7 species of Copepods belonging to 4 genera were </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW18465253 BCX8">identified</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW18465253 BCX8"> from February 2021 to January 2022. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW18465253 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW18465253 BCX8">Mesocyclops</span> </span><span class="TextRun SCXW18465253 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW18465253 BCX8">was </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW18465253 BCX8">observed</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW18465253 BCX8"> as the most diverse genus (4 species), while </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW18465253 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW18465253 BCX8">Mesocyclops</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW18465253 BCX8">edax</span> </span><span class="TextRun SCXW18465253 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW18465253 BCX8">was the most prevalent copepod species. Population density and biodiversity were highest in June and minimum in January. </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW18465253 BCX8">Shannon-Weaver diversity index described greater diversity among copepod species in June.</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW18465253 BCX8"> Pearson correlation and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) revealed that electrical conductivity (EC), temperature, turbidity, </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW18465253 BCX8">pH</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW18465253 BCX8"> and dissolved oxygen (DO) were important environmental variables affecting the biodiversity and density of copepods</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW18465253 BCX8">. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW18465253 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW18465253 BCX8">Conclusions:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW18465253 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW18465253 BCX8">This investigation elucidated that physicochemical parameters </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW18465253 BCX8">generally regulate</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW18465253 BCX8"> the population dynamics of Copepods.</span></span><span class="EOP SCXW18465253 BCX8" data-ccp-props="{&quot;134233279&quot;:true,&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:240}"> </span></p> Muhammad Ahsan Raza Nabila Roohi Husna Ahmad Muhammad Amir Iqbal Copyright (c) 2023 MARKHOR (The Journal of Zoology) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 51 57 10.54393/mjz.v4i02.78 New suid remains of genus Propotamochoerus from the Siwaliks of Pakistan https://markhorjournal.com/index.php/mjz/article/view/74 <p><span class="TextRun SCXW180716702 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW180716702 BCX8">Siwaliks</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW180716702 BCX8"> of Pakistan are highly fossiliferous and are well-known worldwide for vertebrate fossil excavations. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW180716702 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW180716702 BCX8">Objective:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW180716702 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW180716702 BCX8"> A field survey was conducted to recover some new fossils from different geological formations visible around the village Hasnot of district Jhelum. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW180716702 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW180716702 BCX8">Method</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW180716702 BCX8">s</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW180716702 BCX8">:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW180716702 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW180716702 BCX8"> The targeted area was surveyed, and the different formations around the village were keenly examined by the naked eye or by using a magnifying glass </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW180716702 BCX8">when and </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW180716702 BCX8">where needed. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW180716702 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW180716702 BCX8">Results:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW180716702 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW180716702 BCX8">New dental remains of the genus </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW180716702 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW180716702 BCX8">Propotamochoerus </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW180716702 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW180716702 BCX8">(Mammalia, Suidae) have be</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW180716702 BCX8">en found and described from the</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW180716702 BCX8"> Middle Miocene Siwalik beds around Hasnot</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW180716702 BCX8">.</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW180716702 BCX8"> The material consists of an isolated </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW180716702 BCX8">tooth</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW180716702 BCX8">,</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW180716702 BCX8"> the</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW180716702 BCX8"> left</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW180716702 BCX8">third</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW180716702 BCX8"> mandibular</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW180716702 BCX8">molar</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW180716702 BCX8">.</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW180716702 BCX8">The</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW180716702 BCX8">genus</span> </span><span class="TextRun SCXW180716702 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW180716702 BCX8">Propotamochoerus </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW180716702 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW180716702 BCX8">was comprised of small</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW180716702 BCX8"> to large-sized</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW180716702 BCX8"> suids</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW180716702 BCX8">.</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW180716702 BCX8">Its </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW180716702 BCX8">remains were re</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW180716702 BCX8">ported</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW180716702 BCX8"> from the </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW180716702 BCX8">Lower</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW180716702 BCX8"> to the Middle Siwaliks.</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW180716702 BCX8">The presently described material</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW180716702 BCX8">,</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW180716702 BCX8"> i.e., a lower third molar of the left side</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW180716702 BCX8">,</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW180716702 BCX8"> shed</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW180716702 BCX8">s</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW180716702 BCX8"> a great deal of light on the fundamental dental characteristics of this genus. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW180716702 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW180716702 BCX8">Conclusion</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW180716702 BCX8">s</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW180716702 BCX8">:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW180716702 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW180716702 BCX8"> The recovered material is assigned </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW180716702 BCX8">to the species </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW180716702 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW180716702 BCX8">Propotamochoerus salinus </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW180716702 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW180716702 BCX8">(</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW180716702 BCX8">Pilgrim</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW180716702 BCX8">)</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW180716702 BCX8"> based on its morphological assessment</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW180716702 BCX8">.</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW180716702 BCX8"> This material can potentially enhance the prevalent knowledge of the species reported from the surroundings of the Salt Range of the Siwaliks of Pakistan.</span></span><span class="EOP SCXW180716702 BCX8" data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:240}"> </span></p> Amir Nadeem Copyright (c) 2023 MARKHOR (The Journal of Zoology) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 58 61 10.54393/mjz.v4i02.74 Protective Potential of Ashwagandha, Against Pyrifluquinazon Induced Hepato-And Nephrotoxicity in Albino Mice https://markhorjournal.com/index.php/mjz/article/view/82 <p><span class="TextRun SCXW244334504 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW244334504 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text">Globally, due to rise in dependence on the agricultural sector for food supply, the use of insecticides i.e.</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW244334504 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text">,</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW244334504 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text"> “Chemicals used to kill insects</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW244334504 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text">”,</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW244334504 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text"> has been increasing day by day. One of these is</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW244334504 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text">Pyrifluquinazon</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW244334504 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text">. T</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW244334504 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text">he emerging concern is that after field spray, this insecticide has the tendency to be incorporated into surface water and become a part of the food chain and so becomes toxic for both aquatic and terrestrial organisms. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW244334504 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW244334504 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text">Objective</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW244334504 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW244334504 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text">: T</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW244334504 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text">o investigate the protective potential of Ashwagandha against damaging effect of </span><span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW244334504 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text">Pyrifluquinazon</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW244334504 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text">(PQZ)</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW244334504 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text"> on liver and kidney o</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW244334504 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text">f</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW244334504 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text">mature and healthy male albino mice. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW244334504 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW244334504 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text">Methods</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW244334504 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text">: </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW244334504 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW244334504 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text">Albino m</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW244334504 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text">ice were divided into four groups,</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW244334504 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text">each group </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW244334504 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text">contained</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW244334504 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text"> five mice. First group was control</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW244334504 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text">,</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW244334504 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text"> supplied with </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW244334504 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text">water</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW244334504 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text">w</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW244334504 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text">hile</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW244334504 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text">,</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW244334504 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text"> three were</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW244334504 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text"> treated groups</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW244334504 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text"> (Dose,</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW244334504 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text">Dose</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW244334504 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text">+</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW244334504 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text">Antidote and Antidote group</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW244334504 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text"> respectively</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW244334504 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text">)</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW244334504 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text">to check</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW244334504 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text"> protective potential of </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW244334504 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text">Ashwagandha</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW244334504 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text">against PQZ induced </span><span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW244334504 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text">hepato</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW244334504 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text"> and </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW244334504 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text">nephrotoxicity</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW244334504 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text"> in </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW244334504 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text">mice. The</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW244334504 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text"> dose gr</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW244334504 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text">oup was supplied with PQZ while</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW244334504 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text"> Dose</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW244334504 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text">+</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW244334504 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text">Antidote group with PQZ and</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW244334504 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text"> Ashwagandha as an antidote while the Antidote group was supplied</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW244334504 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text"> with</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW244334504 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text"> Ashwagandha.</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW244334504 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text">This was </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW244334504 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text">accomplished</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW244334504 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text"> for 20 days trial.</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW244334504 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text">Blood sampling and dissection was done at 20</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW244334504 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun Superscript SCXW244334504 BCX0" data-fontsize="10" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text">th</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW244334504 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW244334504 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text"> day</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW244334504 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text">.</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW244334504 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text">Blood </span><span class="NormalTextRun ContextualSpellingAndGrammarErrorV2Themed SCXW244334504 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text">sample</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW244334504 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text"> were taken using intra cardiac </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW244334504 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text">sampling method for biochemistry</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW244334504 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text">while liver</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW244334504 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text"> and kidney were separated from each group </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW244334504 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text">for </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW244334504 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text">histopathological</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW244334504 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text"> studies.</span> </span><span class="TextRun SCXW244334504 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW244334504 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text">Result</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW244334504 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text">s</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW244334504 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text">:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW244334504 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW244334504 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text">The liver function test </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW244334504 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text">and kidney function were normal </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW244334504 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text">and </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW244334504 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text">indicated</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW244334504 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text"> restoration of their normal function. </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW244334504 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text">Histopathological</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW244334504 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text"> findings also revealed regeneration in damaged areas of liver and kidney tissues</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW244334504 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text">.</span> </span><span class="TextRun SCXW244334504 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW244334504 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text">Conclusion</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW244334504 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text">s</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW244334504 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text">: </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW244334504 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW244334504 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text">The Findings of this study clearly reveal</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW244334504 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text">ed the protective potential of A</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW244334504 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text">shwagandha against PQZ induced </span><span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW244334504 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text">hepato</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW244334504 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text"> and </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW244334504 BCX0" data-ccp-parastyle="Body Text">nephrotoxicity.</span></span></p> Attiq Ur Rehman Shagufta Andaleeb Azeem Azam Hamza Faseeh Farhan Anjum Rabia Bano Copyright (c) 2023 MARKHOR (The Journal of Zoology) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 62 67 10.54393/mjz.v4i02.82 Antagonistic Effects of Chinese Salt and Folic Acid on Developing Swiss Albino Mice https://markhorjournal.com/index.php/mjz/article/view/76 <p>One of the most often utilized taste enhancer in commercial meals is monosodium glutamate (MSG) commonly called Chinese salt. MSG utilization has been increasing over time and linked with toxicity in liver and other organs. <strong>Objective: </strong>To determine the teratogenic and toxic effects of Chinese salt and folic acid on developing mice. <strong>Methods:</strong> In this study, 20 female pregnant albino mice were divided into four groups, each consisted 5 mice. The control group was supplied with water. To check the teratogenicity and toxicity of Chinese salt and folic acid the treated groups such as Group-I, Group-II and Group-III were supplied with Chinese salt and/or folic acid of concentration 7.50 ug/g of their body weight. The dose was administered orally on daily basis during 6<sup>th</sup> to 12<sup>th</sup> day of gestation. This was accomplished through an 18 days trial. On the eighteenth day of gestation, the pregnant mice underwent dissection and the fetuses were retrieved. Fetuses were taken from all groups for histopathological findings and morphometry. <strong>Results</strong>: Vast range of morphological, morphometric and histological abnormalities in mice were observed in pregnant mice and fetuses. <strong>Conclusions: </strong>The findings of this study clearly revealed that Chinese salt and folic acid overdose are potentially toxic to liver and stomach.</p> Ata Ul Mustafa Fahid Azeem Azam Hamza Faseeh Farhan Anjum Rabia Bano Maryam Latif Sana Kauser Copyright (c) 2023 MARKHOR (The Journal of Zoology) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 68 73 10.54393/mjz.v4i02.76 Economic Importance of Backyard Poultry in Taluka Jhando Mari, District Tando Allahyar, Sindh https://markhorjournal.com/index.php/mjz/article/view/84 <p><span class="TextRun SCXW171017790 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW171017790 BCX0">Present study was carried out to </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW171017790 BCX0">observe</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW171017790 BCX0"> the economic importance of backyard poultry birds in rural areas of Taluka </span><span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW171017790 BCX0">Jhando</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW171017790 BCX0"> Mari district Tando Allahyar during the 2022. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW171017790 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW171017790 BCX0">Objective:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW171017790 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW171017790 BCX0">To </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW171017790 BCX0">determine</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW171017790 BCX0"> the profitability of backyard poultry production in rural areas of Tando Allahyar. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW171017790 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW171017790 BCX0">Method</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW171017790 BCX0">s</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW171017790 BCX0">:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW171017790 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW171017790 BCX0"> Our study was divided into two </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW171017790 BCX0">different parts</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW171017790 BCX0"> (</span><span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW171017790 BCX0">i</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW171017790 BCX0">) primary and (ii) secondary part. Primary category was based on collection of data by interview from respondents by filling questionnaire. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW171017790 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW171017790 BCX0">Result</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW171017790 BCX0">s</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW171017790 BCX0">:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW171017790 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW171017790 BCX0"> The results revealed that 70% of household poultry kept by female and 30% were males. The cost function was estimated using the OLS method. The model of study suggested that price of egg and price of per bird were recorded statistically significant </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW171017790 BCX0">whereas</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW171017790 BCX0"> per bird cost was </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW171017790 BCX0">observed</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW171017790 BCX0"> non-significant statistically. It was concluded that high egg producing poultry breeds such RIR, </span><span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW171017790 BCX0">Playmouth</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW171017790 BCX0">, White leghorn must be raised </span><span class="NormalTextRun AdvancedProofingIssueV2Themed SCXW171017790 BCX0">in order to</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW171017790 BCX0"> increase the production of household backyard poultry birds. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW171017790 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW171017790 BCX0">Conclusion</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW171017790 BCX0">s</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW171017790 BCX0">:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW171017790 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW171017790 BCX0"> It is also concluded that improvement in rural poultry germplasm will be highly effective in rural poultry production system in future and will be major business for completing the food security and nutritional diet in middle class population of our country. Government of Sindh should also encourage private sector poultry by </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW171017790 BCX0">providing</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW171017790 BCX0"> loan and poultry feed on cheapest prices to improve the production of backyard poultry farmers and their livelihood.</span></span><span class="EOP SCXW171017790 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:240}"> </span></p> Rameez Raja Kaleri Zafar Ali Khoso Raza Ali Mangi Ghulam Mustafa Solangi Imran Ahmed Muhammad Anees Memon Muhammad Awais Soomro Farooque Ahmed Khushk Ali Anwar Lookesh Kumar Copyright (c) 2023 MARKHOR (The Journal of Zoology) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 74 79 10.54393/mjz.v4i02.84 Microbial and Parasitic Infection in Fish https://markhorjournal.com/index.php/mjz/article/view/70 <p><span class="TextRun SCXW190316211 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW190316211 BCX8">M</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW190316211 BCX8">ajor concern</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW190316211 BCX8">s in the fisheries business are</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW190316211 BCX8"> parasitic fish and ba</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW190316211 BCX8">cterial infections.</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW190316211 BCX8">When it comes to aquatic life microbes are a regular occurrence. </span><span class="NormalTextRun AdvancedProofingIssueV2Themed SCXW190316211 BCX8">The majority of</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW190316211 BCX8"> microbes are naturally occurring in water. Because of poor environmental conditions, limited nutrition, and inefficient fish husbandry practices, they only cause diseases. </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW190316211 BCX8">Some microbial infections </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW190316211 BCX8">occur </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW190316211 BCX8">in </span><span class="NormalTextRun ContextualSpellingAndGrammarErrorV2Themed SCXW190316211 BCX8">fresh water</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW190316211 BCX8"> fish </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW190316211 BCX8">(</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW190316211 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW190316211 BCX8">Pseudomonas</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW190316211 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW190316211 BCX8"> infection, </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW190316211 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW190316211 BCX8">Acinetobacter</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW190316211 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW190316211 BCX8"> infections, bacterial gill diseases), </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW190316211 BCX8">in </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW190316211 BCX8">marine water (</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW190316211 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW190316211 BCX8">Vibriosis, </span><span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW190316211 BCX8">Tenacibaculosis</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW190316211 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW190316211 BCX8">, </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW190316211 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW190316211 BCX8">streptococcal</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW190316211 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW190316211 BCX8"> infections, bacterial skin diseases) and in brackish water (</span><span class="NormalTextRun ContextualSpellingAndGrammarErrorV2Themed SCXW190316211 BCX8">Red sea</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW190316211 BCX8"> bream iridoviral disease (RSID, </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW190316211 BCX8">Lymphocystis disease (LCD). All </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW190316211 BCX8">these infections</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW190316211 BCX8"> affect fish differently.</span></span> <span class="TextRun SCXW190316211 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW190316211 BCX8">Parasitic </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW190316211 BCX8">illnesses</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW190316211 BCX8"> can cause epidemics in fish that are overcrowded or under other unnatural situations</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW190316211 BCX8">. </span><span class="NormalTextRun AdvancedProofingIssueV2Themed SCXW190316211 BCX8">A large number of</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW190316211 BCX8"> fish species have been severely </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW190316211 BCX8">impacted</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW190316211 BCX8"> by parasite and bacterial species.</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW190316211 BCX8"> Some para</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW190316211 BCX8">sitic infections of fresh water are </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW190316211 BCX8">Renal </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW190316211 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW190316211 BCX8">Sphaerosporosis</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW190316211 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW190316211 BCX8">, due to</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW190316211 BCX8"> leeches and nematodes, </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW190316211 BCX8">isopods</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW190316211 BCX8"> and Gill Monogeneans;</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW190316211 BCX8">in </span><span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW190316211 BCX8">a</span><span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW190316211 BCX8">marine</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW190316211 BCX8"> water</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW190316211 BCX8"> are </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW190316211 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW190316211 BCX8">Mic</span><span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW190316211 BCX8">rosporidiosis</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW190316211 BCX8">, </span><span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW190316211 BCX8">Cryptocaryonosis</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW190316211 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW190316211 BCX8"> and </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW190316211 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW190316211 BCX8">Brooklynelliosis</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW190316211 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW190316211 BCX8">and </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW190316211 BCX8">in brackish water are </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW190316211 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW190316211 BCX8">Diplostomum</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW190316211 BCX8">spa</span><span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW190316211 BCX8">thaceum</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW190316211 BCX8"> metacercarial</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW190316211 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW190316211 BCX8"> infections</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW190316211 BCX8">.</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW190316211 BCX8">Some preventive actions are done to control this problem</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW190316211 BCX8">.</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW190316211 BCX8"> In this review there is a complete detail about parasite and bacterial infection</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW190316211 BCX8">s and how they can be prevented.</span></span><span class="EOP SCXW190316211 BCX8" data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:240}"> </span></p> Saira Kanwal Asma Noureen Sikandar Hayat Muhammad Asif Abbas Tahir Sajid Mahmood Shahid Suleman Copyright (c) 2023 MARKHOR (The Journal of Zoology) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 02 11 10.54393/mjz.v4i02.70 Mitigating the Harmful Impacts of Industrial Effluents; The Potential of Biological Treatment Techniques https://markhorjournal.com/index.php/mjz/article/view/77 <p><span class="TextRun SCXW20429984 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW20429984 BCX0">The leather</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW20429984 BCX0"> and </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW20429984 BCX0">chemical industries produce a large volume of effluents that </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW20429984 BCX0">contain</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW20429984 BCX0"> harmful chemicals, heavy metals, and nutrients. These effluents contribute to pollution and have adverse effects on the environment, aquatic life, animals, and humans. To mitigate these effects, biological techniques such as degradation via algae, fungi, and bacteria have been implemented for the treatment of these effluents. The article discusses the harmful impacts of these industrial effluents and the potential of biological treatment methods to address them. The chemical industry generates effluent </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW20429984 BCX0">containing</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW20429984 BCX0"> toxic, carcinogenic, and</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW20429984 BCX0"> mostly</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW20429984 BCX0"> non-biodegradable chemicals, leading to acute and chronic health effects. </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW20429984 BCX0">Similarly, leather industry </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW20429984 BCX0">generates heavy metals and toxic compounds in effluents that are discharged into </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW20429984 BCX0">aquatic life such as rivers, </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW20429984 BCX0">ponds</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW20429984 BCX0"> and streams without further treatment. </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW20429984 BCX0">They have massive chronic effect on primarily them and </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW20429984 BCX0">ultimately up</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW20429984 BCX0"> in the food chain.</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW20429984 BCX0">Various bioremediation techniques such as bio augmentation involving multiple microbes like bacteria, fungi and algae </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW20429984 BCX0">have and can be used to treat such effluents biologically and </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW20429984 BCX0">eco</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW20429984 BCX0">-</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW20429984 BCX0">friendly.</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW20429984 BCX0"> Chromium </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW20429984 BCX0">(III) and chromium (VI) can be treated effectively only by such techniques. Furthermore, SBR technique and its multiple variants are applied </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW20429984 BCX0">for treatment of potentially toxic chemicals present in chemical industrial effluent.</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW20429984 BCX0"> All such techniques </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW20429984 BCX0">provide</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW20429984 BCX0"> strong biological substitution to prevalent physical or chemical methods of remediation.</span></span><span class="EOP SCXW20429984 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:240}"> </span></p> Humaira Niamat Roheela Yasmeen Muhammad Danyal Mustafa Muhammad Abdullah Zahid Zainab Noor Jaweria Abbas Copyright (c) 2023 MARKHOR (The Journal of Zoology) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 12 17 10.54393/mjz.v4i02.77 Effects of Reproductive Hormones in Dairy Farm Animals https://markhorjournal.com/index.php/mjz/article/view/67 <p>Reproductive hormones are utilized in the dairy industry all over the world to improve reproductive effectiveness and, as a result, dairy cow lifespan. The management system of a farm, especially the sort of calving pattern adopted, appears to be a major determinant of variation between countries. The use of pharmaceutical goods like reproductive hormones and antibiotics in animal husbandry, notably dairy production, has been investigated in the recent decade. Consumer concern about food safety, as well as examples of pharmaceutical product misuse, has led to widespread suspicion about using antimicrobials and hormones in industrial agriculture. Hormones aren't involved in the development of resistant bacteria, yet customers are concerned about hormone residues in animal products. One of the most significant aspects of public perception in dairy farming is food safety. Despite their lack of fundamental understanding of the dairy sector, the public is concerned about using reproductive hormones in modern farming, despite the dearth of information regarding their detrimental consequences. On dairy farmed animals, we looked at the effects of oxytocin, progesterone, and prostaglandin. These reproductive hormones are used in milking animals such as cattle, sheep, and goats to boost milk production, reproductive rate, and developmental processes.&nbsp;</p> Maria Javed Maham Mazhar Sikandar Hayat Muhammad Asif Abbas Tahir Copyright (c) 2023 MARKHOR (The Journal of Zoology) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 18 26 10.54393/mjz.v4i02.67 Conscience of Science: Ethical Imperatives in Zoological Research https://markhorjournal.com/index.php/mjz/article/view/79 <p><span class="TextRun SCXW207030898 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW207030898 BCX0">Zoological</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW207030898 BCX0"> science is an intricate field which requires intimate considerations and guidelines to make sure that limits and boundaries are set for the ethical and </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW207030898 BCX0">humane</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW207030898 BCX0"> conduction of research. </span><span class="NormalTextRun AdvancedProofingIssueV2Themed SCXW207030898 BCX0">A number of</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW207030898 BCX0"> bioethical laws and international conventions have been designed by bioethical and committees and review boards that serve as moral compass steering towards responsible and humane scientific research. Animal Welfare Act (AWA) sets standards for the responsible treatment of animals in research, transport, exhibition and animal dealers</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW207030898 BCX0">, handling and research protocols</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW207030898 BCX0">, Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW207030898 BCX0">that is </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW207030898 BCX0">published by National research Council of Unites States</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW207030898 BCX0">provides</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW207030898 BCX0"> a framework for the proper </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW207030898 BCX0">use and </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW207030898 BCX0">optimal</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW207030898 BCX0"> care</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW207030898 BCX0"> of animals for in vivo research in laboratory experiments</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW207030898 BCX0"> [1]</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW207030898 BCX0">. Similarly, European Union Directive 2010/63/EU is a directive which outlines the standards for the animal protection used for research purposes in the Europe. It states 3Rs of animal testing i.e., Refinement, Reduction and Replacement, and </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW207030898 BCX0">necessitates</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW207030898 BCX0"> that researchers consider alternatives before resorting to the animal experiments. An elaborate directive, Declaration of Helsinki, primarily focuses on human research ethics but has principle related o animal research ethics as well</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW207030898 BCX0"> [2]</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW207030898 BCX0">. Likewise, another Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW207030898 BCX0"> also called as CITES</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW207030898 BCX0">, </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW207030898 BCX0">deals with </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW207030898 BCX0">the trade of endangered </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW207030898 BCX0">animals</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW207030898 BCX0"> ensuring that any research which involves endangered species is conducted ethically with proper permits and prevents illegal and unethical exploitation of animals</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW207030898 BCX0"> [3]</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW207030898 BCX0">.</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW207030898 BCX0">Last but not the least, the ARRIVE guidelines </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW207030898 BCX0">provide</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW207030898 BCX0"> a checklist of essential information which must be included while publishing the research data which describes animal experiments, promotes </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW207030898 BCX0">transparency</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW207030898 BCX0"> and improve the quality of reporting in the animal research. The current global conditions </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW207030898 BCX0">necessitate</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW207030898 BCX0"> ethical consciousness in zoological research.</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW207030898 BCX0">These considerations extend beyond laboratory settings and encompass wildlife conservation and the prevention of zoonotic diseases such as COVID-19. Innovations in non-invasive research methods, genetic analyses, and data-driven insights pave the way for more ethical and efficient scientific practices. Ethical consciousness aligning with the pursuit of knowledge nurtures a landscape where wonder of discovery and the ethical treatment of animals walk hand in hand.&nbsp;</span></span><span class="EOP SCXW207030898 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:240}">&nbsp;</span></p> Farkhanda Manzoor Copyright (c) 2023 MARKHOR (The Journal of Zoology) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 01 01 10.54393/mjz.v4i02.79