Microbiological Analysis of Meat and Their Control


  • Uzma Rafi Department of Biology, Lahore Garrison University, Lahore. Pakistan
  • Sumaira Mazhar Department of Biology, Lahore Garrison University, Lahore. Pakistan
  • Saba Noureen Department of Biology, Lahore Garrison University, Lahore. Pakistan




The current study was performed in order to check the microbial load of beef and chicken collected from the retail shops of an open area and market where that is available in preserved form. Objective: To compare the microbial load between the meat of an open market area and commercially preserved meat (chicken and beef). The antibiotic resistance profile of isolated pathogens was also checked. Methods: Ten samples of each meat specie (beef and chicken) were analyzed for the presence of different pathogens like Salmonella, Shigella, and pathogenic Escherichia coli mainly. The microbial load was approximately the same in beef as well as chicken. The obtained isolates were then subjected to antimicrobial resistance testing by disc diffusion method. Resistance to chloramphenicol, ampicillin and trimethoprim was determined most frequently. Results: In contrast, the bacterial isolates from beef samples were rarely tested resistant or simply non-resistant as compared to that off chicken samples. The bacterial isolates from chicken samples were tested highly resistant against chloramphenicol, trimethoprim and ampicillin. Conclusion: The significant importance of our findings is resistant rate against bacterial pathogens in chicken seems to be much higher than in beef samples found in variety of environment (different localities).


Sohaib M and Jamil F. An Insight of Meat Industry in Pakistan with Special Reference to Halal Meat: A Comprehensive Review. Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources. Korean journal of Food Science. 2017,37(3), 329-341. doi.org/10.5851/kosfa.2017.37.3.329

Stevens A, Kerouanton A, Marault M, Millemann Y, Brisabois A, et al.Epidemiological analysis of Salmonella enterica from beef sampled in the slaughterhouse and retailers in Dakar (Senegal) using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and antibiotic susceptibility testing. Int. J. Food Microbiol.2008, 123(3), 191-197.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2008.01.007

Akhtar S. Food safety challenges—a Pakistan’s perspective. Critic. Rev. Food Science Nutrition. 2015,55(2), 219-226.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2011.650801

Leghari A, Kamboh A A, Dewani P, Abro S H, Umrani A P, et al. Isolation of Mycobacterium bovis from milk and nasal discharge samples of cattle from Hyderabad and Tando Allahyar districts. J. Anim. Health Prod. 2016,4(4), 105-110. doi.org/10.14737/journal.jahp/2016/

Cho J I, Joo I S, Choi J H, Jung K H, Choi E J, et al. Prevalence and characterization of foodborne bacteria from meat products in Korea. Food Sci. Biotechnology.2012, 21(5), 1257-1261. doi.org/10.1007/s10068-012-0165-3

Javed A. Food Borne Health Issues and Their Relevance to Pakistani Society. American Scient. Res. J. Engin. Technol. Sci. (ASRJETS).2016, 26(4), 235-251.

Bhandare SG, Sherikarv AT, Paturkar A M, Waskar V S, Zende R J. A comparison of microbial contamination on sheep/goat carcasses in a modern Indian abattoir and traditional meat shops. Food Control. 2012,18(2), 854-868.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2006.04.012

Javed A. Food Borne Health Issues and Their Relevance to Pakistani Society. American Scient. Res. J. Engin. Technol. Sci. (ASRJETS).2016, 26(4), 235-251.

Bughti A, Abro H S, Kamboh A A, Leghari R A, Kumar C, et al. Bacterial Contamination of Raw Meat and Butchers’ Equipment in Retail Shops in Tando-Allahyar, Pakistan. Journal of Animal Health and Production. 2017,67(5), 1562S– 1566S. doi.org/10.17582/journal.jahp/2017/

Barroeta A C.Nutritive value of poultry meat: relationship between vitamin E and PUFA. Animal Nutrition, Management and Welfare Research Group, Department of Animal and Food Science, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Spain. 010684_Journal.2007, 40(2), 265-277. doi.org/10.1017/S0043933907001468

Doulgeraki AI, Ercolini D, Villani F et al. Spoilage microbiota associated to the storage of raw meat in different conditions. Int. J. Food Microbiol.2012, 157(8), 130–141. doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2012.05.020

Schlegelova J, Nápravníkova E, Dendis M, Horváth R, Benedík J, et al. Beef carcass contamination in a slaughterhouse and prevalence of resistance to antimicrobial drugs in isolates of selected microbial species. Meat Science. 2004,66(3), 557–565. doi.org/10.1016/S0309-1740(03)00159-1

Koo OK, Mertz AW, Akins EL, Sirsat SA, Neal JA, et al. Analysis of microbial diversity on deli slicers using polymerase chain reaction and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis technologies. Lett. Appl. Microbiol.2013, 56, 111–119.doi.org/10.1111/lam.12021

Lavilla Lerma L, Benomar N, Gálvez A, et al.Prevalence of bacteria resistant to antibiotics and/or biocides on meat processing plant surfaces throughout meat chain production. Int. J. Food Microbiol.2013, 161(4), 97–106. doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2012.11.028

Ghafir Y, China B, Dierick K, De Zutter L and Daube G. A seven‐year survey of Campylobacter contamination in meat at different production stages in Belgium. Int. J. Food Microbiology.2007, 116(5), 111–120. doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2006.12.012

Schwaiger K, Huther S, Hölzel C, Kämpf P and Bauer J. Prevalence of antibiotic‐resistant enterobacteriaceae isolated from chicken and pork meat purchased at the slaughterhouse and at retail in Bavaria, Germany. Int. J. Food Microbiology. 2012,154(3), 206–211. doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2011.12.014

Franz CM, Stiles ME, Schleifer KH, Holzapfel WH. Enterococci in foods--a conundrum for food safety. Int J Food Microbiol. 2003,88(2-3):105-22. doi: 10.1016/s0168-1605(03)00174-0.

Nychas GJ, Skandamis PN, Tassou CC, Koutsoumanis KP. Meat spoilage during distribution. Meat Sci. 2008,78(1-2):77-89. doi: 10.1016/j.meatsci.2007.06.020.

Rhoades JR, Duffy G, Koutsoumanis K. Prevalence and concentration of verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes in the beef production chain: a review. Food Microbiol. 2009 ,26(4):357-76. doi: 10.1016/j.fm.2008.10.012.

Kafili T, Emamjomeh Z and Kazerouni Timsar M. Study to determine the critical control points in beef slaughter line in order to establish a HACCP system. Iran. J. Food Science and Technology. 2006,3(3), 35–47.

Dallal M, Doyle M, Rezadehbashi M, Dabiri H, Sanaei M, et al. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance profiles of Salmonella serotypes, Campylobacter and Yersinia spp. isolated from retail chicken and beef, Tehran, Iran. Food Control.2010, 21(7), 388–392. doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2009.06.001

Bonyadian M, Tahmasby H, Akhondzadeh D, Salehi AN, Mollanouri, et al.Evaluation of sheep meat contamination to Escherichia coli and Escherichia coli o157, o26 and o128 serotypes in Shahrekord by PCR. Vet. J. (Pajouhesh‐Va‐Sazandegi). 2013,25(5), 38–41.

Johnson R P, R C Clarke, J B Wilson, S C Read, K Rahn, et al. Growing concerns and recent outbreaks involving non-O157:H7 serotypes of verotoxigenic Escherichia coli. J. Food Protection. 1996,59(8), 1112–1122.doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X-59.10.1112

Nataro JP, and JB Kaper. Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli. Clin. Microbiological Revolution. 1998,11(1), 142–201. doi.org/10.1128/CMR.11.1.142

Aslam M, Nattress F, Greer G, Yost C, Gill C, et al.Origin of Contamination and Genetic Diversity of Escherichia coli in Beef Cattle. Applied and environmental microbiology. 2003,69(5), 2794–2799. doi.org/10.1128/AEM.69.5.2794-2799.2003

Chai SJ, Cole D, Nisler A, Mahon BE. Poultry: The most common food in outbreaks with known pathogens, United States. Epidemiological Infections. 1998-2012,145(4), 316–325. doi.org/10.1017/S0950268816002375

Vihavainen, E, Lundstrom HS, Susiluoto T, Koort J, Paulin L, et al. Role of broiler carcasses and processing plant air in contamination of modified-atmosphere-packaged broiler products with psychrotrophic lactic acid bacteria. Applications of Environmental Microbiology. 73(8), 1136–1145. doi.org/10.1128/AEM.01644-06

Luber P.Cross-contamination versus undercooking of poultry meat or eggs—Which risks need to be managed first? Int. J. Food Microbiology. 2009,134(2), 21–28. doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2009.02.012



DOI: 10.54393/mjz.v2i1.28
Published: 2021-06-30

How to Cite

Rafi, U., Mazhar, S., & Noureen, S. (2021). Microbiological Analysis of Meat and Their Control. MARKHOR (The Journal of Zoology), 2(1), 37–44. https://doi.org/10.54393/mjz.v2i1.28



Original Article


Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>