Comparative Analysis of Heavy Metal Accumulation Pattern and Genotoxicity in Water Fowl
Waterfowl spend their lives mostly on water bodies include ducks, geese, and swans, also include birds such as coots, grebes, moorhens, shorebirds and seabirds etc. Wetlands in Pakistan offer habitat to a variety of migratory birds. Bird’s diversity facing problems due to loss of natural habitat and hunting causing serious issues to bird’s territories. Objective: To investigate bioaccumulation of heavy metals and genotoxicity in waterfowl. Methods: This study investigated bioaccumulation of heavy metals and genotoxic effects that could result from exposure of waterfowl to heavy metals in the Chenab River, Punjab, Pakistan. The three different species, common teal (Anas crecca), little egret (Egretta garzetta) and mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) were obtained from head Marala, River Chenab. The liver, kidneys, heart, muscle, blood, and feathers of birds were collected for the purpose of determining the presence of heavy metals. The study investigated the most common heavy metals Pb, Cd, Ni, and Cr indicating higher concentrations of heavy metals in blood and feathers from the study site. At study sites Pb Cr, Ni concentrations were high (P ≤ 0.05). Results: The results in the current study revealed metals concentration in different species trend as Anas crecca > Egretta garzetta > Anas platyrhynchos. The deposition of heavy metals in organ trends as Pb>Cr>Ni>Cd. The level of metals in blood trends as Pb>Cr>Ni>Cd. Metal concentrations in feathers trend as Pb>Cr>Ni>Cd. Conclusions: Expression analysis of anti-apoptosis Bcl-2 made for Egretta garzetta and genotoxicity results showed that the effect of metals in study groups found negative for the expression of the Bcl2 gene.
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