https://markhorjournal.com/index.php/mjz/issue/feed MARKHOR (The Journal of Zoology) 2024-04-05T09:02:33+00:00 Prof. Dr. Riffat Mehboob editor@markhorjournal.com Open Journal Systems <p><strong>Title of Journal:</strong> MARKHOR (ISSN Online: 2790-4385, Print: 2790-4377)</p> <p><strong>Frequency:</strong> Quarterly (w.e.f Jan, 2024)</p> <p><strong>Affiliated with</strong>: Lahore Medical Research Center</p> <p><strong>Website:</strong> (<a href="http://www.lmrc.com.pk">www.lmrc.com.pk</a>)</p> <p><strong>Published By:</strong> CrossLinks International Publishers (CLIP), Lahore, Pakistan</p> <p><strong>Website:</strong> (<a href="http://www.clip.com.pk">www.clip.com.pk</a>)</p> <p><strong>Address:</strong> 590-Karim Block, Allama Iqbal Town, Lahore, Pakistan</p> <p>Lahore Medical Research Center has published "<strong>MARKHOR</strong>, The Journal of Zoology (MJZ)"; a Quarterly Journal, double blind peer-reviewed open access Journal. The aim of the Journal is to provide a platform for allied health professionals to publish their research work. All materials, articles and information published in <strong>MARKHOR</strong> will be peer-reviewed.</p> <p>Research papers, Short communications, Review or mini-reviews, Commentaries, Perspectives, opinion, Meta-analysis, Case reports, Case studies, Case-control studies</p> <p>Reviews on recent progress in The Journal of Zoology are commissioned by the editors. The purpose of the <strong>MARKHOR</strong> is to publish scientific and technical research papers to bring attention of international researchers, scientists, academicians, health care professionals towards recent advancements in the field of Zoology. The articles are collected in the form of reviews, original studies, clinical studies etc. It may serve as a global platform for scientists in relevant fields to connect and mutually share ideas. This journal is open to all the research professionals whose work fall within our scope.</p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Accreditation:</strong></span></p> <p><strong>Approved by Higher Education Commission of Pakistan for the year 2023-24</strong></p> <p><strong><u>Articles Submission &amp; Publication Fee</u></strong></p> <p>Article Processing Fee: <strong>NONE</strong></p> <p>Article Publication Fee (National) Rs 20000 / Article</p> <p>Article Publication Fee (International ) 200 USD / Article</p> <p>Printed Version (Selected Articles on Authors Request): Rs 2500/per copy</p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Annual Subscription for Printed Versions</strong></span></p> <p>For Institutes: Rs 20,000/ Annually</p> <p>Single Copy (Selected Articles): Rs 2500/-</p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Waiver Policy</strong></span></p> <p>If an author has no funds to pay such charges, he may request for full or partial waiver of publication fees. The decision may however vary from case to case.</p> <p>We do not want charges to prevent the publication of worthy material.</p> <p><strong> Submission</strong> are welcome and may be submitted here <a href="mailto:editor@markhorjournal.com">editor@markhorjournal.com</a></p> https://markhorjournal.com/index.php/mjz/article/view/75 Production of Bio-Ethanol from Agricultural Waste Using Microbes: An Overview 2023-12-01T10:50:33+00:00 Sumaira Mazhar 1@gmail.com Roheela Yasmeen roheelayasmeen@lgu.edu.pk Faheem Hafeez 1@gmail.com Aruba Mariam Iqbal 1@gmail.com <p><span class="TextRun SCXW251292250 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW251292250 BCX8">Ethanol produced through the fermentation of plant biomass is considered an environment friendly alternate to fossil fuels. Bioethanol and biodiesel, commonly known as second-generation biofuels, are produced through biological processes using agro-industrial waste and are considered sustainable, safe, and ecofriendly. These biofuels can minimize the emission of carbon dioxide and reduced the world’s dependence on fossil fuel. This review article focuses on three generations of biofuels, particularly the production of biofuel using fungal biocatalysts specifically </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW251292250 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW251292250 BCX8">Aspergillus </span><span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW251292250 BCX8">niger</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW251292250 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW251292250 BCX8"> and </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW251292250 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW251292250 BCX8">Saccharomyces cerevisiae</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW251292250 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW251292250 BCX8"> and the mechanism by which they convert biomass into biofuel. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW251292250 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW251292250 BCX8">A. </span><span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW251292250 BCX8">niger</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW251292250 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW251292250 BCX8"> is known for releasing cellulolytic and pectolytic enzymes to hydrolyze biomass and survive against toxins, while </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW251292250 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW251292250 BCX8">S. cerevisiae</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW251292250 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW251292250 BCX8"> produces invertase and zymase enzymes to convert sucrose into fructose and glucose sugars, and then further convert fructose and glucose into ethanol. The main purpose of this review is to explore alternative techniques for generating biofuels, using as few harmful chemicals as possible and reducing time consumption.</span></span><span class="EOP SCXW251292250 BCX8" data-ccp-props="{&quot;134233279&quot;:true,&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:240}"> </span></p> 2024-03-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 MARKHOR (The Journal of Zoology) https://markhorjournal.com/index.php/mjz/article/view/85 Biodiversity of Earthworms with Special Reference to Tehsil Wazirabad, District Gujranwala, Punjab, Pakistan 2024-03-09T08:37:44+00:00 Muhammad Ahsan Raza ahsanraza1810@gmail.com Ali Hasan 1@gmail.com Syeda Alveena Hashmi 2@gmail.com Usman Zafar 3@gmail.com <p>Earthworms are crucial soil invertebrates that are involved in the circulation of nutrients, humus formation, decomposition of organic matter and generation of soil texture. They play an important role as bioindicator of soil contamination. <strong>Objective</strong>: To investigate the biodiversity of earthworms in different habitats (Grassy lawns, croplands, marshy areas, ponds, edges of river and canals) of Tehsil Wazirabad, Punjab, Pakistan. <strong>Methods</strong>: A total number of four hundred and fifty (450) samples of earthworms were collected from above mentioned sites for a period of six months (March 2015 to August 2015), by hand sorting technique. Morphological details of all earthworm specimens collected from the designated areas were recorded and species were identified by using the systematic key. <strong>Results: </strong>During present investigation, six species; <em>Pheretima posthuma</em>,<em> P. lignicola</em>,<em> P. morrisi</em>, <em>Microscolex dubis</em>, <em>Aporrectodea longa</em> and <em>Notoscolex sacutarius</em> belonging to 4 genera and 2 families (Megascolecidae, Lumbricidae) were recorded. The distribution patterns of various earthworm species in the designated habitats shows that <em>Pheretima posthuma </em>is the most abundant species distributed in all sites; whereas, <em>P. lignicola</em> was least populated in the selected habitats. According to ecological grouping of reported earthworm species; Endogeic (50%) was the most dominant group followed by Epigeic (33%) and Anecic (17%). <strong>Conclusions:</strong> This study provided the base line data and much needed information about biodiversity of earthworms in Tehsil Wazirabad. This knowledge can be very useful in improving the soil conditions and agriculture gross production in investigated area.</p> 2024-03-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 MARKHOR (The Journal of Zoology) https://markhorjournal.com/index.php/mjz/article/view/92 The Ecological Status of Treehopper Caresa tuarina in District Hyderabad, Sindh Pakistan 2024-03-22T19:59:41+00:00 Iqra Babar 1@gmail.com Bakhtawar Soomro bakhtawarsoomro145@gmail.com Shakeel Ahmed Memon 1@gmail.com Arsalan Sadiq 1@gmail.com <p><span class="TextRun SCXW232750031 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW232750031 BCX0">The treehopper</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW232750031 BCX0">, </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW232750031 BCX0">also known as </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW232750031 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW232750031 BCX0">Caresa </span><span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW232750031 BCX0">tuarina</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW232750031 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW232750031 BCX0">, </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW232750031 BCX0">is </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW232750031 BCX0">an intriguing creature with more than a hundred recorded species. Treehoppers are </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW232750031 BCX0">a very diverse</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW232750031 BCX0"> group of insects, that play a crucial role in the ecosystem, yet many species </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW232750031 BCX0">remain</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW232750031 BCX0"> uncovered in terms of their ecological status. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW232750031 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW232750031 BCX0">Objective</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW232750031 BCX0">s</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW232750031 BCX0">: </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW232750031 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW232750031 BCX0">To investigate the ecological status of </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW232750031 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW232750031 BCX0">C. </span><span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW232750031 BCX0">taurina</span> </span><span class="TextRun SCXW232750031 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW232750031 BCX0">and</span></span> <span class="TextRun SCXW232750031 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW232750031 BCX0">propose conservation strategies to </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW232750031 BCX0">ensure its preservation in the d</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW232750031 BCX0">istrict Hyderabad, Sindh, Pakistan. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW232750031 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW232750031 BCX0">Methods:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW232750031 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW232750031 BCX0">Field survey was carried out in different areas of Hyderabad</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW232750031 BCX0"> to investigate the habitat and population of </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW232750031 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW232750031 BCX0">C. </span><span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW232750031 BCX0">tuarina</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW232750031 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW232750031 BCX0">. For preservation of </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW232750031 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW232750031 BCX0">C.</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW232750031 BCX0">taurina</span> </span><span class="TextRun SCXW232750031 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW232750031 BCX0">specie</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW232750031 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW232750031 BCX0">,</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW232750031 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW232750031 BCX0"> naphthalene balls and 70% alcohol were used.</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW232750031 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW232750031 BCX0"> Environmental factors including temperature, humidity, plant cover, air pressure, soil type, </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW232750031 BCX0">and UV</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW232750031 BCX0"> index and habitat structure were noted at each sample location</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW232750031 BCX0">.</span></span> <span class="TextRun SCXW232750031 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW232750031 BCX0">Results: </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW232750031 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW232750031 BCX0">The collected </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW232750031 BCX0">t</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW232750031 BCX0">reehopper</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW232750031 BCX0">s</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW232750031 BCX0"> were small size insects, measuring around 8</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW232750031 BCX0">mm in length. Agricultural areas and riparian zones were shown to be important habitats for </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW232750031 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW232750031 BCX0">C. </span><span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW232750031 BCX0">taurina</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW232750031 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW232750031 BCX0"> populations. Different physical </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW232750031 BCX0">characteristics include</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW232750031 BCX0">d</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW232750031 BCX0"> soil type was lay and whose terrain was plane land; there was a full moon, 34°C in the </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW232750031 BCX0">m</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW232750031 BCX0">ean temperature; 27% Mean humidity; 21.22 </span><span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW232750031 BCX0">psig</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW232750031 BCX0"> of air pressure; and a moderate UV index.</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW232750031 BCX0"> Urbanization, intensified agriculture, pesticide usage, and changes in habitat appropriateness brought on by climate change are the main causes of habitat degradation for populations of </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW232750031 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW232750031 BCX0">C. </span><span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW232750031 BCX0">taurina</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW232750031 BCX0">. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW232750031 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW232750031 BCX0">Conclusions: </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW232750031 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW232750031 BCX0">It is concluded that population of treehoppers </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW232750031 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW232750031 BCX0">(</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW232750031 BCX0">C.</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW232750031 BCX0">tuarina</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW232750031 BCX0">)</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW232750031 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW232750031 BCX0"> mostly found in agri</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW232750031 BCX0">culture and riparian zones.</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW232750031 BCX0">They </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW232750031 BCX0">are facing</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW232750031 BCX0"> habitat degradation </span><span class="NormalTextRun AdvancedProofingIssueV2Themed SCXW232750031 BCX0">as a result of</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW232750031 BCX0"> urbanization, intensive agriculture, pesticide use, and changes in habitat appropriateness brought on by climate change. </span></span><span class="EOP SCXW232750031 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:240,&quot;335572071&quot;:0,&quot;335572072&quot;:0,&quot;335572073&quot;:0,&quot;335572075&quot;:0,&quot;335572076&quot;:0,&quot;335572077&quot;:0,&quot;335572079&quot;:0,&quot;335572080&quot;:0,&quot;335572081&quot;:0,&quot;335572083&quot;:0,&quot;335572084&quot;:0,&quot;335572085&quot;:0,&quot;335572087&quot;:0,&quot;335572088&quot;:0,&quot;335572089&quot;:0,&quot;469789798&quot;:&quot;nil&quot;,&quot;469789802&quot;:&quot;nil&quot;,&quot;469789806&quot;:&quot;nil&quot;,&quot;469789810&quot;:&quot;nil&quot;,&quot;469789814&quot;:&quot;nil&quot;}"> </span></p> 2024-03-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 MARKHOR (The Journal of Zoology) https://markhorjournal.com/index.php/mjz/article/view/93 Biometrical Analysis of the Indian One Horned Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros Unicornis) in Laal Suhanra National Park, Pakistan 2024-03-22T20:12:25+00:00 Muhammad Rizwan Khan drrizwan010@gmail.com Bushra Nisar Khan bushra.zool@pu.edu.pk Zia Ullah ziaullah.mughal@uvas.edu.pk Fakhra Nazir fakhra.979.nazir@gmail.com Arshia Mukhtar arshiamukhtar1997@gmail.com Mubasher Rauf mubasherrauf@cuvas.edu.pk Muhmmad Azhar azhar.vet11@gmail.com Abida Mushtaque abida.mushtaque@uvas.edu.pk Rida Fatima ridafatimahussain144@gmail.com <p>The Indian One-Horned Rhinoceros (<em>Rhinoceros unicornis</em>), commonly referred to as the Indian Rhinoceros, is an endangered species inhabiting the floodplains and grasslands of the Indian subcontinent. Once abundant, the species now faces a vulnerable status in its homeland, as confirmed by the International Union for The Conservation of Nature IUCN’s assessment. <strong>Objective:</strong> To record <em>Rhinoceros unicornis'</em> biometric body measurements for the first time. <strong>Methods:</strong> The following study delves into the significance of body biometry data for the conservation of this remarkable species Indian One Horned Rhinoceros housed at Lal Suhanra National Park, Punjab, Pakistan. In order to give conservationists, the resources they need to develop more effective methods involving habitat management, population monitoring, and captive breeding programs, a thorough analysis of the physical characteristics, growth trends, and sexual dimorphism of 42-year-old Indian Rhinos via the evaluation of the body measurements was conducted. <strong>Results</strong><strong>:</strong> This study presents comprehensive body measurements of the Indian One-Horned Rhinoceros which have never been published before. The length of the rhino itself spanned 143 inches, encapsulating the magnitude of this magnificent creature. These insightful observations are crucial for protecting the threatened species, particularly considering the growing threats caused by habitat loss, poaching, and the effects of climate change. <strong>Conclusion</strong><strong>s:</strong> Biometric analysis of large mammals assumes a pivotal role when designing enclosures and estimating the enclosure dimensions.</p> 2024-03-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 MARKHOR (The Journal of Zoology) https://markhorjournal.com/index.php/mjz/article/view/97 Multivariate Analysis of Copepod’s Distribution in Jallo Lake, Lahore Pakistan 2024-03-29T09:28:27+00:00 Faheem Nawaz 1@gmail.com Naveed Akhtar 1@gmail.com Sara Hayee sarahayee33@gmail.com Amir Nadeem amir679@yahoo.com Fozia Bashir 1@gmail.com Amber Ayub 1@gmail.com Farah Ashfaq 1@gmail.com Sadia Kanval 1@gmail.com Abdul Qayyum Khan Sulehria 1@gmail.com <p><span class="TextRun SCXW126128159 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW126128159 BCX0">Copepods are valuable zooplankton found globally. Fish eat them. Any water ecosystem has food chains and webs. Their diversity and density depend on physicochemical factors.</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW126128159 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW126128159 BCX0">Objective:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW126128159 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW126128159 BCX0"> The</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW126128159 BCX0"> Jallo Lake was targeted for the investigation of </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW126128159 BCX0">the </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW126128159 BCX0">s</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW126128159 BCX0" lang="RU-RU" xml:lang="RU-RU" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW126128159 BCX0">patio-temporal</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW126128159 BCX0">distribution</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW126128159 BCX0">of</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW126128159 BCX0">copepods</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW126128159 BCX0">from</span> </span><span class="TextRun SCXW126128159 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW126128159 BCX0">January</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW126128159 BCX0" lang="RU-RU" xml:lang="RU-RU" data-contrast="auto"> <span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW126128159 BCX0">to</span> </span><span class="TextRun SCXW126128159 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW126128159 BCX0">December</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW126128159 BCX0" lang="RU-RU" xml:lang="RU-RU" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW126128159 BCX0"> 20</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW126128159 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW126128159 BCX0">2</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW126128159 BCX0" lang="RU-RU" xml:lang="RU-RU" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW126128159 BCX0">3.</span></span> <span class="TextRun SCXW126128159 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW126128159 BCX0">Methods:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW126128159 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW126128159 BCX0">Copepods were collected from Jallo Park's freshwater with a zooplankton mesh. These organisms were species-classified using conventional keys.</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW126128159 BCX0">Separate water samples were taken to examine physicochemical characteristics. Sedgwick Rafter chamber for species counting. PAST software was used for PCA I &amp; II and CCA.</span> </span><span class="TextRun SCXW126128159 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW126128159 BCX0">Results:</span></span> <span class="TextRun SCXW126128159 BCX0" lang="RU-RU" xml:lang="RU-RU" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW126128159 BCX0">Ten</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW126128159 BCX0">species</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW126128159 BCX0">and</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW126128159 BCX0">their</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW126128159 BCX0">nauplius</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW126128159 BCX0">larvae</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW126128159 BCX0">from</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW126128159 BCX0">seven</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW126128159 BCX0">orders</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW126128159 BCX0">were</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW126128159 BCX0">identified</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW126128159 BCX0">in</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW126128159 BCX0">this</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW126128159 BCX0">study</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW126128159 BCX0">. The </span><span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW126128159 BCX0">study</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW126128159 BCX0">examined</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW126128159 BCX0">conductivity</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW126128159 BCX0">, </span><span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW126128159 BCX0">oxygen</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW126128159 BCX0">saturation</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW126128159 BCX0">, </span><span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW126128159 BCX0">dissolved</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW126128159 BCX0">oxygen</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW126128159 BCX0">, pH, </span><span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW126128159 BCX0">and</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW126128159 BCX0">transparency</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW126128159 BCX0">.</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW126128159 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW126128159 BCX0"> Air and water temperature was also recorded. </span></span> <span class="TextRun SCXW126128159 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW126128159 BCX0">Analysis of Variance (</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW126128159 BCX0" lang="RU-RU" xml:lang="RU-RU" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW126128159 BCX0">ANOVA</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW126128159 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW126128159 BCX0">)</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW126128159 BCX0" lang="RU-RU" xml:lang="RU-RU" data-contrast="auto"> <span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW126128159 BCX0">for</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW126128159 BCX0">physicochemical</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW126128159 BCX0">properties</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW126128159 BCX0">, </span><span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW126128159 BCX0">excluding</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW126128159 BCX0">transparency</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW126128159 BCX0">, </span><span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW126128159 BCX0">was</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW126128159 BCX0">statistically</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW126128159 BCX0">significant</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW126128159 BCX0">at</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW126128159 BCX0"> (= 0.05, P = 0.000). </span><span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW126128159 BCX0">Copepod</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW126128159 BCX0">variety</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW126128159 BCX0">and</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW126128159 BCX0">density</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW126128159 BCX0">peaked</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW126128159 BCX0">in</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW126128159 BCX0">June</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW126128159 BCX0">and</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW126128159 BCX0">July</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW126128159 BCX0">and</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW126128159 BCX0">dropped</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW126128159 BCX0">in</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW126128159 BCX0">October</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW126128159 BCX0">and</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW126128159 BCX0">December</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW126128159 BCX0">.</span></span> <span class="TextRun SCXW126128159 BCX0" lang="RU-RU" xml:lang="RU-RU" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW126128159 BCX0">The </span><span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW126128159 BCX0">dendrogram</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW126128159 BCX0">showed</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW126128159 BCX0">three</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW126128159 BCX0">cluster-level</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW126128159 BCX0">variations</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW126128159 BCX0">.</span></span> <span class="TextRun SCXW126128159 BCX0" lang="RU-RU" xml:lang="RU-RU" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW126128159 BCX0">Plotting</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW126128159 BCX0">copepod</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW126128159 BCX0">species</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW126128159 BCX0">and</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW126128159 BCX0">month</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW126128159 BCX0">abundance</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW126128159 BCX0">curves</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW126128159 BCX0">. </span><span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW126128159 BCX0">Principal</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW126128159 BCX0">component</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW126128159 BCX0">analysis</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW126128159 BCX0"> (PCA I, PCA II) </span><span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW126128159 BCX0">was</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW126128159 BCX0">used</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW126128159 BCX0">to</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW126128159 BCX0">correlate</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW126128159 BCX0">months</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW126128159 BCX0">, </span><span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW126128159 BCX0">copepod</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW126128159 BCX0">species</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW126128159 BCX0">, </span><span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW126128159 BCX0">and</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW126128159 BCX0">physicochemical</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW126128159 BCX0">parameters</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW126128159 BCX0">.</span></span> <span class="TextRun SCXW126128159 BCX0" lang="RU-RU" xml:lang="RU-RU" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW126128159 BCX0">Canonical</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW126128159 BCX0">component</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW126128159 BCX0">analysis</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW126128159 BCX0"> (CCA) </span><span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW126128159 BCX0">shows</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW126128159 BCX0">diversity</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW126128159 BCX0">similarities</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW126128159 BCX0">between</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW126128159 BCX0">sites</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW126128159 BCX0">on</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW126128159 BCX0">the</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW126128159 BCX0">same</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW126128159 BCX0">water</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW126128159 BCX0">body</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW126128159 BCX0">and</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW126128159 BCX0">links</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW126128159 BCX0">species</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW126128159 BCX0">abundance</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW126128159 BCX0">to</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW126128159 BCX0">environmental</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW126128159 BCX0">conditions</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW126128159 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW126128159 BCX0">.</span> </span><span class="TextRun SCXW126128159 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW126128159 BCX0">Conclusion</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW126128159 BCX0">s</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW126128159 BCX0">:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW126128159 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW126128159 BCX0">Only ten copepod species from seven orders and nauplius larvae were isolated from the aquatic body under research during the study months. Copepod diversity and density in freshwater lakes depended on environmental conditions.</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW126128159 BCX0"> </span></span><span class="EOP SCXW126128159 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:240}"> </span></p> 2024-03-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 MARKHOR (The Journal of Zoology) https://markhorjournal.com/index.php/mjz/article/view/96 Toxic Impact of Chlorpyrifos Insecticide on the Ovary of Pigeon (Columba Livia Domestica) 2024-04-05T09:02:33+00:00 Shakeel Ahmed Memon samemonn@gmail.com Nasreen Memon nasreen.memon@gmail.com Nadir Ali Birmani birmani@gmail.com <p>Modern agriculture and vector-borne diseases are responsible for the rapid increase in pesticide usage, which is harmful to animals, particularly birds. The declining in the diversity of bird’s species is a major concern Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is the commonly used insecticide in agriculture sector. Unfortunately, CPF is still being applied across the world. <strong>Objective: </strong>To evaluate the toxic impact of chlorpyrifos on the ovaries of the pigeon in relation to the reproductive toxicity. <strong>Methods:</strong> For this purpose, N=80 healthy (<em>Columba Livia domestica</em>) pigeons were used. Pigeons had been acclimated for fifteen (15) days and divided into four equal groups (A-D) Oral dosages 1.3 mg, 1.6 mg, and 2.1 mg per kg body weight per day of chlorpyrifos (CPF) were administered respectively to group B, C and D for 84 consecutive days and pigeons from group (A) assigned as control. Daily observations were made on stress-related signs and behavioral changes. (H &amp; E) staining method was applied to examine histological change in the ovary of pigeons after exposure to CPF, likewise for the control. <strong>Results:</strong> Birds from groups B-D displayed notable clinical signs such as: tremors, salivation, open-mouth breathing, ruffled feathers, lethargy and watery diarrhea and reduced food intake. The Histological examinations revealed that the ovary of pigeons from the B, C, and D showed notable variations such as follicular degeneration, vacuolation, hypertrophy, and fibrosis after exposure to CPF. The intensity was on high doses as compared to control which were with normal ovarian articulation small containing big follicles of all diameters. Oocytes, thecal layers, granulosa layers (g), stromal Tissue, and nucleus contained yolk-like secondary oocytes, mature follicles. <strong>Conclusions:</strong> In current study it was concluded that, the CPF produced drastic impact on the ovary of pigeon that may be associated with alterations in reproduction.</p> 2024-03-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 MARKHOR (The Journal of Zoology) https://markhorjournal.com/index.php/mjz/article/view/95 Comparative Safety Evaluation of Boma and Chemical Immobilization Techniques Applied for Translocation of Spotted Deer (Axis axis) 2024-03-15T14:17:31+00:00 Bushra Nisar Khan bushra.zool@pu.edu.pk Muhammad Rizwan Khan drrizwan010@gmail.com Muhammad Azhar 1@gmail.com Rida Fatima 1@gmail.com Abida Mushtaque 1@gmail.com Muhammad Talha Mukhtar 1@gmail.com Aneela Anwar 1@gmail.com <p><span class="TextRun SCXW195795848 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW195795848 BCX0">The translocation of wild ungulates poses significant stress to the animal species being transported, </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW195795848 BCX0">necessitating</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW195795848 BCX0"> careful consideration. Chemical restraint helps to reduce the stress levels significantly by minimizing the mobility of the animals. Capture myopathy, a leading cause of mortality during chemical immobilization, is a critical concern. However, the Boma method offers a promising alternative to the conventionally used translocation methods.</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW195795848 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW195795848 BCX0"> Objective:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW195795848 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW195795848 BCX0"> T</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW195795848 BCX0">o compare the survival outcomes of the spotted deer captured and transported using both chemical restraint and the Boma method, therefore assessing their respective effectiveness.</span> </span><span class="TextRun SCXW195795848 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW195795848 BCX0">Methods</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW195795848 BCX0">:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW195795848 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW195795848 BCX0"> In the</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW195795848 BCX0"> study, we </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW195795848 BCX0">used 22 spotted deer for chemical restraint method and 30 spotted deer were captured through Boma method and both of techniques were </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW195795848 BCX0">assess</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW195795848 BCX0">ed,</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW195795848 BCX0"> how capture methods influenced the fatality rate of the </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW195795848 BCX0">highly sensitive</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW195795848 BCX0"> spotted deer</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW195795848 BCX0"> which were being trans-</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW195795848 BCX0">located</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW195795848 BCX0"> from Safari Zoo, Lahore to other captive sites</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW195795848 BCX0"> of Punjab Pakistan</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW195795848 BCX0">. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW195795848 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW195795848 BCX0">Results:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW195795848 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW195795848 BCX0"> The exceptional record of zero mortality in the Boma procedure </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW195795848 BCX0">was seen as compared to the chemical immobilization in which 31% of the total shifted animals were expired. The </span><span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW195795848 BCX0">pathognomic</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW195795848 BCX0"> white streaked/pale muscles in necropsy findings of dead animals </span><span class="NormalTextRun AdvancedProofingIssueV2Themed SCXW195795848 BCX0">later on</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW195795848 BCX0"> confirmed the dead due to capture myopathy. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW195795848 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW195795848 BCX0">Conclusions:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW195795848 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW195795848 BCX0"> The study </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW195795848 BCX0">established</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW195795848 BCX0"> the finding that Boma technique is </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW195795848 BCX0">safer technique for</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW195795848 BCX0"> trans-location </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW195795848 BCX0">of ungulates especially</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW195795848 BCX0"> spotted deer as compared to the chemical immobilization.</span></span><span class="EOP SCXW195795848 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{&quot;134233279&quot;:true,&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559731&quot;:0,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:240}"> </span></p> 2024-03-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 MARKHOR (The Journal of Zoology) https://markhorjournal.com/index.php/mjz/article/view/88 The Coral Chronicles: Climate Crisis and Its Implications on the Global Coral Reefs 2024-02-27T08:51:09+00:00 Nadeem Sheikh S_nadeem77@yahoo.com <p><span data-contrast="auto">The coral reefs are one of the most devastating causalities that is often overlooked as our planet grapples with the continually progressing crisis of climate change. They are often addressed as the rainforests of the sea and are hubs of biodiversity that support a one-fourth of all marine species even though they only cover less than one percent of the ocean floor. Not only are they inhabiting countless marine creatures, they are also a crucial food an income source to the millions of people worldwide. Alas! These vibrant underwater ecosystems are being pushed to the brink of collapse due the relentless onslaught of climate change.</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:240}">&nbsp;</span></p> <p><span data-contrast="auto">Consider the Great Barrier Reef, off the coast of Australia, where extensive coral bleaching events are occurring due to rising sea temperatures [1]. The threat of ocean acidification has jeopardized the coral reef in the Maldives and is potentially affecting the country economically which is based on the tourism and fisheries. Likewise, Caribbean Sea is facing disease outbreak and coral bleaching. Philippines is home to some of the most diverse coral reefs in the world but, climate change, overfishing and coastal development is threatening these natural ecosystems. Apart from these, Seychelles and Mauritius in the Indian Ocean and the Coral triangle in the Southeast Asian region are also at stake due to these environmental stressors [2].&nbsp;</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:240}">&nbsp;</span></p> <p><span data-contrast="auto">In the face of these challenges, many governments, NGOs and local communities have united to conserve these global reefs. Different Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) have been developed to mitigate overfishing and habitat destruction and protect the coral reefs [3]. Moreover, many techniques have been developed to restore the degraded coral ecosystems and enhance their resilience, including Coral Transplantation and Artificial Reef Structures. These initiatives have created the hope that the vibrant coral reefs will eventually recover in face of the existing environmental crises.&nbsp;</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:240}">&nbsp;</span></p> <p><span data-contrast="auto">However, we cannot overstate that the current situation is dire and nothing short of a global calamity. It is our moral obligation that we protect and preserve these natural wonders for future generations.&nbsp; If we do not take immediate action to curb the emission of greenhouse gases and fight against the climate change, we risk losing these underwater ecosystems right in front of our eyes. It is our choice and the stakes could not be higher.</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:240}">&nbsp;</span></p> <p><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:240}">&nbsp;</span></p> 2024-03-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 MARKHOR (The Journal of Zoology)