Multivariate Analysis of Copepod’s Distribution in Jallo Lake, Lahore Pakistan

Multivariate Analysis of Copepods


  • Faheem Nawaz Government College University, Lahore, Pakistan/Institute of Zoology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Naveed Akhtar Government College University, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Sara Hayee Department of Zoology, Government Graduate College for Women, Samanabad, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Amir Nadeem Government College University, Lahore, Pakistan/Department of Zoology, Government Islamia Graduate College, Civil Lines, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Fozia Bashir Department of Biology, Government Associate College for Women, Manga Mandi, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Amber Ayub Department of Zoology, Government Viqar Un Nisa Graduate College for Women, Rawalpindi, Pakistan
  • Farah Ashfaq Department of Zoology, Government Graduate College for Women, Samanabad, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Sadia Kanval Department of Zoology, Government Graduate College for Women, Samanabad, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Abdul Qayyum Khan Sulehria Government College University, Lahore, Pakistan



Copepods, Canonical Component Analysis, Dendrogram, Diacyclops thomsai


Copepods are valuable zooplankton found globally. Fish eat them. Any water ecosystem has food chains and webs. Their diversity and density depend on physicochemical factors. Objective: The Jallo Lake was targeted for the investigation of the spatio-temporal distribution of copepods from January to December 2023. Methods: Copepods were collected from Jallo Park's freshwater with a zooplankton mesh. These organisms were species-classified using conventional keys. Separate water samples were taken to examine physicochemical characteristics. Sedgwick Rafter chamber for species counting. PAST software was used for PCA I & II and CCA. Results: Ten species and their nauplius larvae from seven orders were identified in this study. The study examined conductivity, oxygen saturation, dissolved oxygen, pH, and transparency. Air and water temperature was also recorded.  Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) for physicochemical properties, excluding transparency, was statistically significant at (= 0.05, P = 0.000). Copepod variety and density peaked in June and July and dropped in October and December. The dendrogram showed three cluster-level variations. Plotting copepod species and month abundance curves. Principal component analysis (PCA I, PCA II) was used to correlate months, copepod species, and physicochemical parameters. Canonical component analysis (CCA) shows diversity similarities between sites on the same water body and links species abundance to environmental conditions. Conclusions: Only ten copepod species from seven orders and nauplius larvae were isolated from the aquatic body under research during the study months. Copepod diversity and density in freshwater lakes depended on environmental conditions.    


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DOI: 10.54393/mjz.v5i01.97
Published: 2024-03-31

How to Cite

Nawaz, F., Akhtar, N., Hayee, S., Nadeem, A., Bashir, F., Ayub, A., Ashfaq, F., Kanval, S., & Khan Sulehria, A. Q. (2024). Multivariate Analysis of Copepod’s Distribution in Jallo Lake, Lahore Pakistan : Multivariate Analysis of Copepods . MARKHOR (The Journal of Zoology), 5(01), 27–32.