Seasonal Distribution of Copepods as Influenced by Physicochemical Parameters in Khanki Headworks, Pakistan

Seasonal Distribution of Copepods


  • Muhammad Ahsan Raza Department of Zoology, Government Graduate College (Boys), Satellite town, Gujranwala, Pakistan
  • Nabila Roohi Institute of Zoology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Husna Ahmad Institute of Zoology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Muhammad Amir Iqbal Institute of Zoology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan



Copepods, Planktonic, Electrical Conductivity, Dissolved Oxygen, Canonical Correspondence Analysis


Copepods are tiny aquatic animals. Their role in aquatic food chains is very crucial as they are involved in organic matter circulation and energy transfer between different trophic levels. They are important source of food for fish larvae and zooplanktivorous fish. Objective: To assess the influence of environmental variables on the abundance, diversity and seasonal variations of planktonic copepods in Khanki Headworks, Pakistan. Methods: For the analysis of environmental variables monthly water samples from four selected sites were collected for a period of one year (February 2021 to January 2022). Environmental variables were analyzed in laboratory by following standard procedures. Month wise samples of copepods were collected with planktonic net (mesh size: 37µm) from four locations (each with 3 sub-sites). Results: In total, 7 species of Copepods belonging to 4 genera were identified from February 2021 to January 2022. Mesocyclops was observed as the most diverse genus (4 species), while Mesocyclops edax was the most prevalent copepod species. Population density and biodiversity were highest in June and minimum in January. Shannon-Weaver diversity index described greater diversity among copepod species in June. Pearson correlation and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) revealed that electrical conductivity (EC), temperature, turbidity, pH and dissolved oxygen (DO) were important environmental variables affecting the biodiversity and density of copepods. Conclusions: This investigation elucidated that physicochemical parameters generally regulate the population dynamics of Copepods. 


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DOI: 10.54393/mjz.v4i02.78
Published: 2023-12-31

How to Cite

Raza, M. A., Roohi, N. ., Ahmad, H. ., & Iqbal, M. A. . (2023). Seasonal Distribution of Copepods as Influenced by Physicochemical Parameters in Khanki Headworks, Pakistan : Seasonal Distribution of Copepods. MARKHOR (The Journal of Zoology), 4(02), 51–57.